When did the Internet appear?
The Internet is an international system of commoncomputer networks, built on IP protocols and their routing. Officially, at the beginning of 2012, the number of registered users on the Internet reached 2.3 billion people. The Internet is used in electronic business, communications and the media. With the help of the Internet people can watch movies, listen to music, read books, and also communicate with each other. So when did the Internet appear?
Not everyone of us knows that this phenomenonmodern life, like the Internet, for more than forty years. Foresight of this means of information transmission was foreseen by many figures of the 19-20 centuries. So the Russian writer Odoevsky and the English writer Forster, almost a century apart, described in their novels the appearance of an automatic system serving humanity. The same idea was picked up in their works by such science fiction writers as Isaac Aizimov, Sergei Snegov, Boris and Arkady Strugatsky. But few of them assumed that the question of when the Internet appeared in the year would be so soon to have an answer. The development of technology and electronics in the twentieth century went so fast that, only a couple of decades after the Second World War, humanity in its development has made a global leap.
The history of the Internet in the world
So in what year did the Internet appear? Here is a step-by-step chronology of the development of this mass phenomenon:
- 1957 - after the launch of the Soviet satelliteThe US Department of Defense commissioned the Agency for Advanced Research and Development (DARPA) to develop a unified, reliable computer network in the event of war.
- 1961 - the publication of Leonard Kleinrock's scientific work on packet switching became the basis for DARPA specialists.
- September 2, 1969 - The first ARPANET server (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) was installed at the University of California, its memory was only 24 KB.
- October 29, 1969 - the firsta communication session between the two first ARPANET servers, which were located at a distance of 640 kilometers. The session was led by Charlie Kline (University of California) and Bill Duvall (Stanford Institute). At 21:00 the first attempt was made to transfer the word LOGIN, but only three LOG characters were sent, after which the network was deactivated. At 22:30 the session was restored and successfully completed. It is this date that is considered the birthday of the Internet.
- 1972 - the first e-mail program was launched, which immediately became popular, TELNET appears and the FTP file transfer protocol.
- 1973 - the network received international status due to the connection via a telephone cable with Norway and the United Kingdom.
- January 1, 1983 - the computer network ARPANET has changed the NCP protocol to TCP / IP, which is successfully used today. In addition, the concept of "Internet", which we all know, is behind the network of ARPANET.
- 1984 - the emergence of the NSFNet (National Science Foundation Network), developed by the US National Science Foundation. This network had a large bandwidth and immediately made ARPANET competition.
- 1988 - the IRC protocol was created, which helped the emergence of real-time communication (chats).
- 1989 - British scientist Tim Berners-Leeproposed his original concept of creating the World Wide Web, developed the HTML language, HTPP protocol, URL identifier and the World Wide Web (WWW) visualization program.
- 1990 - the ARPANET network ceased to exist, giving way to NSFNet.
- 1991 - The World Wide Web got its public access and immediately became popular thanks to the browser MOSAIC.
- 1995 - The World Wide Web overtook the FTP file transfer protocol in its popularity.
- 1996 - the concept of the World Wide Web is replaced by the notion of the modern Internet.
The history of Internet development in Russia
When did the Internet appear in Russia? Usually the history of the origin of the Russian-speaking part of the Internet (Runet) is described by the following main milestones:
- August 22, 1990 - the scientific network of the Institute of Atomic Energy and IEC Minavtoprom for the first time connected to the Internet, therefore this day is considered the day of the birth of the Russian Internet.
- September 19, 1990 - the first domain of the Soviet Union .su was registered in an international database.
- April 7, 1994 - the first domain of the Russian Federation .ru was registered in an international database.
Today, connection to the Internet both in Russia,and all over the world, possibly through cable television, telephone, radio channels, communication satellites, cellular communications. Officially, in Russia, the Internet day is celebrated on September 30.