What is ascariasis: this you did not yet know!
Jul 21, 2018
Helminth invasions are among the oldest pathologies that cause significant harm to the body.About what is ascariasis, not by hearsay is known to the inhabitants of warm countries.
- reasons ascaridosis
- Ascariasis: analysis
- Ascariasis children
- Ascariasis adults
- Prevention of ascariasis
human Ascaris( Ascaris lumbricoides)From the class of nematodes is the main causative agent of intestinal infectious pathology.Helminths, round worms, grow up to 40 cm in length( females) and parasitize in the body for about a year.Prefers to reproduce in the liver, intestinal walls, pancreas, but affects almost all internal organs.
Ascarids are more common in children at a young age due to non-compliance with basic hygiene rules.
Infection occurs from a sick person when a female helminth secretes eggs and they enter the external environment with feces.
Fertility of roundworms is high enough and amounts to about 240,000 units of future parasites per day.A total of several tens of millions of eggs are in the body of one female at the same time!
Eggs allocated with feces are not considered dangerous.In the external environment, the larvae of geohelminths need certain conditions for maturation.At a temperature of 24 ° and a humidity of no more than 8%, ascarids develop, becoming invasive to the human body.A sufficient amount of oxygen is also important.The vital activity of eggs of roundworms is stopped when exposed to high temperatures( more than 50 °).
The spread of ascaridosis is promoted by the fertilization of garden crops with feces that have not been decontaminated.Eggs along with the earth fall on the trunk and fruits of the plant.Eaten unwashed vegetables, fruits or berries - this is the main path of infestation.
Migrating to the system begins 2 weeks after infection.During this time, the eggs turn into larvae, and settle in the intestine.Getting into the blood plasma, they hit every vital organ.
You can meet roundworms on various household appliances, in public places( baths, toilets, saunas, buses).
Insects, especially flies, carry eggs of parasites on the legs.Thus, the infection spreads constantly, mainly in countries with appropriate climatic conditions.
Infection with ascarids often occurs after consuming unwashed vegetables and fruits or from an infected person.
More information about askaridosis you can get from the video program Live Healthily.
The development of roundworms in the human body takes place in several stages.The early( migratory) phase is associated with the movement and process of larval metabolism.The products of vital activity of helminths irritate the system, causing allergic reactions.
The first clinical manifestations of the disease will be skin rashes, hepatitis( granulomatous), hemorrhages( due to movement of parasites), dry cough, wheezing.It should be borne in mind that the initial phase can be asymptomatic or, conversely, cause severe pulmonary pathologies.Supplement the picture of the violation of the liver, heart.
The intestinal stage has a more pronounced symptomatology.Children and adults infected with ascariasis suffer from the following symptoms:
- Fast fatigue( mental and physical)
- Nausea attacks
- Abdominal pain for no apparent reason
- Appetite disorders( complete absence sharply replaced by hunger)
- Decreased performance
- Restless sleep
- Bronchitis, bronchial asthma
- Pressure reductionIa
These symptoms are noticeable after 4-6 weeks after being hit roundworm eggs into the system.In some cases, manifestations may be completely absent.
Helminths affect immunity by exposing the body to frequent colds and intestinal infections.Often, the temperature rises, lymph nodes increase, rapid weight loss is observed.
The ingestion of roundworm eggs( parasites) causes various symptoms depending on the phase of the pathology.
Ascaridosis: analysis of
Only medical examination can confirm the presence of ascaridosis, the main reason for which will be the appearance of abdominal pain without established etiology or periodic coughing in the absence of other signs of bronchopulmonary diseases.
The most reliable way to detect helminths is the coprogram.Laboratory analysis involves the study of faeces( feces).The material gives a clear idea of the state of the digestive system, reveals inflammatory processes and helminthic invasions.In case of infection with ascarids, the method will show a reliable result only at the intestinal stage.
The negative indicator does not always indicate the absence of parasites, because among the individuals can be only males or the invasion occurred less than 2 months ago and the larvae did not have time to "pass" into the intestinal wall.
Microscopic examination of the stool needs to be performed every 3 days for two weeks.The material is collected in a special container after natural emptying of the rectum.Delivered to the laboratory immediately or no later than 12 hours after defecation, provided that the sample was in the refrigerator.
During the migration phase, if the patient complains of a dry periodic cough and rales, sputum samples are used for the study.Quite often, ascarid larvae are located in the bronchi and lungs, but in the material taken for analysis, their number is insignificant.It is recommended to repeat the laboratory diagnosis several times.
Without fail the patient hands over the general analysis of blood serum.Increased values of eosinophil( white blood cell) and leukocyte counts in a complex with a decreased hemoglobin indicate a helminthic infection.
Specific diagnosis of blood for antibodies( IgG) is performed in the early phase of defeat by round helminths.The values of the indicators indicate the stage of development of pathology( in the initial analysis), the effectiveness of therapy( in a control study).
In some cases, ascariasis can be diagnosed by lung and intestinal radiography.The movement of infiltrates( the phase of migration) can be seen in the pictures.To confirm, additional testing methods are appointed, corresponding to the stage of infection.
A coprogram is considered the best method of revealing the larvae and eggs of ascarids.
Ascaridosis in children
Glaive infestations are more common in children than in adults and bring a lot of suffering to a small body.Parents need to be alert, especially in the warm season, when it is easiest to catch round helminths.
A severe diagnosis for a baby can result in accustomed fun in the sandbox, visiting the beach or driving to the country( during the season of fruits and vegetables).Eggs of parasites are present in the ground and penetrate into the body at a time when the dirty hands or toys the kid puts in his mouth.Many children have a habit of trying to sand "on the tooth", and adults do not always have time to prevent this action.
To diagnose ascariasis in children is most often obtained at the intestinal stage, after a coprogram.The analysis is carried out with deterioration of the child's health, the appearance of abdominal pain( with palpation), lack of appetite, and increased liver.
Parasites live in the body of children up to 24 months, after which they die and go out with feces.Having identified the nematode in the feces, parents need to take a picture of it and show the doctor for setting a preliminary diagnosis and setting a method of examination.
Treatment of helminthic invasion is determined by a specialist depending on the age of the child.It is important to monitor your health after taking special medications.From re-infection, the system does not produce specific immune cells, so you can only protect your baby by hygiene.
Infection with parasites in childhood is faster and more common in medical practice.
Parasitic pathology does not bypass adults.The risk group includes people whose activities are related to agriculture( agricultural workers, farmers, inveterate summer residents).Ascaris human is capable of provoking severe ailments and harming even the strongest organism.
Symptomatic, typical of invasion by round helminths, is usually manifested after 1-2 months.To distinguish ascariasis from other diseases without the help of a doctor and appropriate methods of examination is not easy.Signs such as worsening digestion, epigastric pain, appetite disorders, skin rashes, anemia, chest pain and cough accompany many diseases.
The dangers of ascarids represent for women during pregnancy.Larvae penetrate the placental barrier and affect the developing fetus, settling mainly in the lungs.After the birth, babies suffer from frequent ARVI, chronic pathology of the respiratory system, allergies.
The future mother feels the negative impact of the process life of worms.Toxins, which they excrete, provoke the body's reaction in the form of vomiting, general weakness.Medication at an early age is contraindicated.
Parasites are detected by microscopic examination of fecal matter( intestinal stage), x-ray of internal organs and blood analysis( onset of pathology).Preparations that eliminate helminths are extremely toxic and can affect the course of pregnancy.Self-treatment of ascaridosis even in adults is not recommended.
Adults undergo infection with ascarids, neglecting basic hygiene rules.
Ascaridosis: treatment of
The main goal of therapy in the detection of nematodes is to remove parasites from the system.The lack of timely medication for infection with ascarid is fraught with complications, because the human body does not leave the parasite, unlike pinworms.The treatment regimen and types of drugs are selected depending on the weight and age of the patient after confirmation of the diagnosis.
Anti-wrinkle medicines give almost 100% cure, but they must be chosen with care.
Most of the products on the pharmaceutical market have a strong toxic effect.
most popular for the treatment of parasitic infestations are the following medications:
- Pyrantel( Gelmintoks)
- Dekaris( Levamisole)
For the treatment of children under the age allowed by 6 monthsUse Albendazole, Mebendazole, but solely for the purpose and control of the doctor.It is recommended to use half the dose in case the child is younger than 1 year.Pirantel
Pamoat is used when it is necessary to treat ascarids in women in the position.Dosage is calculated by a specialist.
In the complex can be prescribed antihistamine and iron preparations, enzymes, multivitamins.After a course of anthelminthic therapy( after 3 weeks), a control analysis of the feces is performed.Absence of parasites testifies to the successful drug effect.
Folk recipes for the treatment of parasitic pathology are based on intolerance to worms of spicy, spicy foods.
A decoction of milk with garlic, an infusion of onion, a mixture of raw pumpkin seeds with leaves of bitter wormwood proved to be a good idea.It should be remembered that non-traditional methods of treatment are preliminarily discussed with the attending physician.
Ascaridosis can be treated with medicines and folk methods.
Prophylaxis of ascaridosis
Helminths penetrate the body without difficulty and cause significant damage to health.The situation is aggravated by the fact that children are more prone to infection.Protect against helminthic invasions can be the only way - following the rules of hygiene.It is important for children to be taught to wash their hands after walking, playing games, and toilet.
It is better to limit contact with street animals, because the wool may contain ascaris eggs.Children and adults should not eat fruits and vegetables that have not undergone a preliminary washing.Especially it concerns products from a home bed.The helminth egg is covered with a sticky substance that helps it to attach well to the surface.
Fertilize the soil can only be composted for at least 2 years in cesspools.It is important to disinfect feces in toilets located in the kitchen gardens.To do this, special chemicals are used.It is necessary to supervise, that the country site( or children's sandbox) is not polluted by feces of the person and animals.When working with soil, it is desirable to shorten the nails and wear rubber gloves.
The exposure to high temperatures kills the eggs and larvae of the human roundworm.
Therefore, sand can be secured for babies by constantly loosening it and moving the lower layer upward.The child should have separate toys for outdoor games.The population is provided with information about the danger of ascaridosis and methods of prevention.
The main measure for the prevention of ascaris damage is maintenance of cleanliness and hygiene.
Each phase of parasitic invasion can cause some harm to the body.During migration through the system, the ascarid larva traumatizes blood vessels, internal organs.In severe cases, bleeding and tissue perforation occur.Inhabitation in the intestine disrupts the process of digestion of food, motor function, deteriorates the absorption of nutrients.
Toxic substances released by the helminth poison the system from the inside and provoke allergic rashes on the skin surface.Children may develop asthmatic suffocation.Getting into the respiratory organs, it is difficult to supply air to the body.Damage to the walls of the intestine will lead to peritonitis, the passage of the parasite into the abdominal cavity.
A congestion of worms in the gut causes obstruction, with the diagnosis of which is indicated surgical intervention.The tiny ball is felt for the patient during palpation of the abdominal region.The most serious complication is the "colonization" of bile duct nematodes and the bladder itself.Acute pain syndrome, constant vomiting and fever overpower the patient.
Immunity of an infected person is weakened.Parasites absorb vitamins and minerals coming from food.Often the intestinal dysbacteriosis develops.Abscesses occur against the background of an associated bacterial pathology.
Ascarids are geohelminths that need to stay in the environment for full maturation and the ability to infect humans.Avoiding helminthic invasion will help permanent hygiene, the teaching of children and adults to cleanliness.