Vacuum valve for sewage: the principle of operation + installation of the valve
An unpleasant smell emanating from the sewage system is quite common in our houses and apartments. Therefore, it is important to know that there is an easy way to improve its work without resorting to overhaul.
A vacuum valve for sewage (or as it is also called an air valve, aerator, vent, fan valve) allows you to improve the system, and in some cases even abandon the construction of a ventilating riser.
Symptoms of sewage problems
Disturbances in the sewage can be identified by characteristic signs. These are:
- presence of extraneous sounds;
- the spread of unpleasant odors.
In homes with a long-established sewer network, you must first check all the elements of the network for damage.Deviations in the operation of the new system may indicate improper installation.
If during the inspection it was possible to eliminate such causes of possible damage, such as cracks in the pipelines, blockages in the sewers or ventilation ducts, or improper inclination of the pipes, then the cause of the problems is most likely an insufficient air flow. In this case, the installation of a vacuum valve will help solve the problems in the system.
The principle of operation and purpose of the vacuum valve
During the hours of maximum drainage and during the discharge of large amounts of water in the sewer system, air can be created and the water from the siphon water trap is sucked out, and odors, harmful gases and vapors enter the room. The vacuum valve is installed to compensate for the pressure in the sewer system. It prevents the exhaustion of water and the penetration of the smell of siphons.
It happens as follows.The vacuum valve starts to operate during a pressure drop in the sewer network. At the moment of draining a large volume of waste fluid (for example, when using a toilet bowl or several plumbing fixtures), the pressure in the system dilutes and the valve membrane opens automatically, allowing air to flow into the pipeline until the pressure levels out.
If the sewer is not used, the valve remains closed and prevents the penetration of vapor and gases into the room.
- Non-ventilated sewer networks. In systems in which there is no possibility to attach the exhaust part to the pipeline, it is allowed to use an air valve. A device is used for aeration of toilet bowls, sinks, where the consumption of a large amount of wastewater can lead to an imbalance of pressure and the drawing of water from the hydraulic seal.
- Long horizontal sewer networks with a large number of sanitary points and a high probability of salvo discharge drains. For example, in public toilets.In such places, in order to prevent breakdown of the hydraulic lock, an aerator is installed every three sanitary points.
- Systems in which plumbing is located far from the riser, and the product slope of the sewer pipe (expressed in mm / m) exceeds the height of the hydraulic shutter.
The vacuum valve (aerator) allows you to save materials and funds when building engineering networks in low-rise buildings, by refusing to install a ventilation pipe. In high-rise buildings, it can only be used as additional equipment used to optimize the operation of the sewage system.
Pros and cons of using a vent valve
To prevent gases, vapors and odors from the piping system from entering the house, provide ventilation, which will facilitate their removal from the system. The principle of ventilation is based on the inflow of air from the ventilation pipe of the septic tank, the passage of air flow through the external and internal sewer networks and their exit through the ventilation duct, which is led to the roof.
Thus, the air, passing through the septic tank and the sewage system, carries with it all odors, goes with them through the ventilation riser in the roof and then dissipates. In the absence of a ventilation system, an unpleasant odor and volatile substances from the septic tank and pipes can enter the room through disrupted hydraulic valves.
The presence in the building of the ventilation system ensures the absence of odors entering the premises even if the siphons are disrupted or dried. But sometimes the arrangement of the fan channel is impossible or causes great difficulties.
This may occur due to the characteristics of the roofing material, due to the roof being used, the impossibility of locating the exit of the exhaust riser far from the balconies, windows, ventilation systems. In this case, the exhaust part is brought to the attic, and an aerator is mounted on its top.
The vacuum valve can not be a full replacement for ventilation risers, but its use can be justified by the following advantages:
- easy and quick installation;
- saving money;
- the inability to install a standpipe;
- minimization of heat loss through ventilation risers;
- improvement of work of a sewer network and big freedom at its planning.
Simply put, the vent valve only solves one problem — it prevents the vent valve from collapsing, while the riser equalizes the pressure in the network, and also vents the septic tank and the internal sewage system.
When constructing a non-ventilated system or replacing the ventilation stack on the aerator, it is necessary to correctly calculate the network capacity in order to eliminate the possible disruption of siphons or the failure of funnel valves.
It should also be borne in mind that if the building does not live all year round, it may happen that the hydraulic gates will not be filled with water (dry) and air from the sewage will flow into the rooms, which will not happen when a ventilated riser is installed.
The design and operating conditions of the device
The case of the fan valve for arrangement of sewage is made of propylene. The internal mechanism can be equipped with a rubber membrane or a stem that allows air to enter the system without releasing it back into the room. Rod valve is considered more reliable, as its working part wears out more slowly.
When choosing a valve, pay attention to the following characteristics:
- for open or closed installation;
- required diameter of the connecting outlet;
- with ordinary or double insulating wall of the riser;
- what kind of locking mechanism is used - membrane or rod;
- for vertical or horizontal (with a T-shaped connection) connection.
Tight requirements are imposed on vacuum valves for sewage, each of them is tested for tightness and reliability - during operation they can withstand more than 800 thousand response cycles without loss of working qualities.
General Rules for Installing a Fan Valve
Before installation, first check the valve for leaks. The easiest way to do this is to fill it with water from the side where the air should not flow into the inside of the case and check this part for any leakage.
The aerator is installed exclusively in an upright position. When placed horizontally or installed under a slope, the manufacturer does not guarantee its proper operation. To achieve the desired location when installing the valve, you can use tees and elbows, which will help to install it vertically. Although the device does not require regular technical inspection, it is still necessary to provide access to it for cleaning if necessary.
During installation, it is necessary to ensure the free flow of air to the aerator, since the water during draining is able to entrain air, the volume of which is 25 times greater than the amount of the waste liquid itself. It is especially important to consider this feature when flush-mounted aerator for sewage system.
It is installed above the level of connection of the most extreme point of discharge (in the place furthest from the riser). To exclude the possibility of contact with the sealing membrane - the main working element - splashes and dirt, the aerator is installed above 300 mm from the junction with the riser.
The device is mounted in places accessible for air intake. This may be an attic, technical floor or a bathroom in the upper floor of the house. All rooms must be ventilated or equipped with hoods.
The operating temperature range of different device models can vary from –50 ° C to + 95 ° C.When installing the aerator in the unheated part of the house, the sewer riser (pipe) is insulated. The valve body can not be protected from negative temperatures, since there is an air cavity between its cover and the body, which can serve as a heater.
How to install: step by step instructions
Most air valves are manufactured by manufacturers for connecting to DN110 pipes. If the connecting size of the device does not match the size of the pipe, use a special adapter. For pipes DN50 or DN75 use aerators with the corresponding diameter of the connecting outlet or equipped with a reducing insert.
It must be remembered that a valve intended for pipes with a diameter of less than 110 mm can be installed for a maximum of two plumbing points.
In sections of transition from a pipe of a larger diameter to a valve with a smaller diameter, use liners, various adapters. To install the aerator on the cast-iron pipe, there are also special adapters that provide reliable plastic-metal interface.
Initially, the work determines the place of installation of the valve, taking into account the rules of installation and its availability for further maintenance. Next, perform the following steps:
- Turn off the water in the house.
- If the installation is carried out on a previously installed pipeline, then insert and install a special adapter.
Most models of aerators have a bell-type attachment. The assembly of such compounds is carried out in the following sequence:
- The outer surface of the smooth part and the surface inside the socket are cleaned of dust.
- Wipe the sealing ring from possible contamination and put it into the socket of the socket.
- Surfaces that are in contact during bonding are lubricated to reduce friction. To do this, use a sealant, made on the basis of silicone or soap solution, glycerin.
- Get the smooth end of the valve in the bell to the mark. The quality of the connection is checked by turning the parts relative to each other, with the subsequent return to the starting position.
If necessary, the area with a connected vacuum valve is fixed with a clamp. At the end of the work it is necessary to check the joints for tightness.
For flush mounting use special models of vacuum valves. If the riser is hidden in a fine or protective box, then it is necessary to take measures to ensure the flow of air into the sewer valve. To do this, the size of the mesh aerator, make the vent.
The body of the aerator is buried in the wall, the fastener is adjusted so that its outer edge is flush with the wall surface. The visible element is only a decorative grille, which can be fastened with screws or inserted manually. For aesthetic reasons, it is available in the most popular colors - white, gray, black and chrome.
Some models of valves can be used as openings for cleaning sewage. To do this, remove the decorative cover, take out the internal mechanism of the fan valve and turn on the cable inside.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The principle of operation and the purpose of the fan valve:
Installing a fan valve can certainly significantly improve the performance of the sewer network. But you should not consider its installation as a panacea for all possible troubles associated with poor performance of the drain system.