The deepest place in the world's oceans: the Mariana Trench
The ocean is much closer to us than the planets of the solar system. However, its bottom has been studied only by 5 percent. And how many more secrets do the waters of the world ocean store? This is the greatest mystery of our planet.
Mariana Trench, or in another way Mariánskytrough, - the deepest place in the world ocean. There are amazing creatures and almost no light. However, this is the most famous place, which is still not fully understood and contains many unsolved mysteries.
Immersion in the Mariana Trench is the presentsuicide. Because the pressure of water here is thousands of times higher than the pressure at sea level. The maximum depth of the world's ocean is approximately 10,994 meters with an error of 40 meters. However, there are daredevils who descended to the very bottom, risking their own lives. Of course, this was not without modern technology.
Where is the deepest place in the world ocean
The Mariana Trench is located in the PacificOcean, or more precisely, in its western part, closer to the east, near Guam, about 200 kilometers from the Mariana Islands. The deepest place in the world ocean in shape resembles a trough in the form of a crescent moon. The width of the hollow is about 69 kilometers, and the length is 2,550 kilometers.
Coordinates of the Marian Trench: eastern longitude - 142 ° 35 ', northern latitude - 11 ° 22'.
Temperature at the bottom
Scientists have suggested that at maximum depthmust be very low temperature. However, they were very surprised by the fact that at the bottom of the Mariana Trench this figure remains above zero and is 1 to 4 ° C. Soon this phenomenon was found and explanation.
Approximately at a depth of 1600 meters from the surfacewater are hydrothermal sources. They are also called "white smokers." Jets of very hot water come from the sources. Its temperature is 450 ° Celsius.
It should be noted that this water hasa huge amount of minerals. It is these chemical elements that support life at great depth. Despite such a high temperature, which exceeds several times the boiling point, the water does not boil. And this is explained by a sufficiently high pressure. At this depth, this figure is 155 times greater than that on the surface.
As you can see, the deepest places of the world ocean are not so simple. In them, many more secrets are hidden, which must be solved.
Who lives at such a depth
Many people think that the deepest place in the worldthe ocean is an abyss where life can not exist. However, this is not the case. At the very bottom of the Mariana Trench, scientists discovered very large amoebas, which are called xenophytophores. The length of their body is 10 centimeters. These are very large unicellular organisms.
Scientists suggest that this species of amoeba acquiredSuch dimensions are due to the environment in which they have to exist. It is worth noting that these unicellular creatures were found at a depth of 10.6 kilometers. Many factors influenced their development. This is the absence of sunlight, and high enough pressure, and, of course, cold water.
In addition, xenophiophores have unique abilities. Amoebas perfectly tolerate the impact of many chemicals and elements, among them lead, mercury and uranium.
At the bottom of the Mariana Trench is very high pressure. In such conditions, there is no chance to survive even for creatures with bones or shells. However, not so long ago, mollusks were found in the Mariana Trench. They dwell near hydrothermal springs, because serpentine contains methane and hydrogen. These substances allow to fully form a living organism.
Until now, it is not known how mollusks manage tosave their shells in similar conditions. In addition, hydrothermal sources produce another gas - hydrogen sulphide. And he, as is known, is deadly for any mollusks.
Liquid carbon dioxide in pure form
The Mariana Trench is a deep place in the worldocean, as well as an amazing world with many inexplicable phenomena. There are hydrothermal springs located near Taiwan, outside the Okinawa trench. This is the only underwater area known at the moment where liquid carbon dioxide is present. This place was discovered back in 2005.
Many scientists believe that it was these sources that allowed birth in the Mariana Trench. After all, there is not only the optimum temperature, but also chemical substances.
The deepest places in the world's ocean are simplyamazing by the extraordinary nature of their world. Here you can find living organisms that excellently feel themselves in total darkness and under high pressure and can not exist in another environment.
It should be noted that the Mariana Trench hasthe status of a national monument of the USA. This marine reserve is the largest in the whole world. Of course, for those who want to visit here, there is a certain list of rules. In this place it is strictly forbidden to extract minerals, and also to fish.