The city of Gatchina: map, photo. Sights of Gatchina, city day
In the vicinity of St. Petersburg there is a smallcity - Gatchina. Today it is the regional center of the Leningrad Region, whose population exceeds 83 thousand people. Every day this city is visited by thousands of tourists. And it's not that Gatchina is a scientific satellite near St. Petersburg (here is the oldest pedagogical college in Russia, the Institute of Economics and Finance, and also the Scientific Research Institute of Nuclear Physics named after BP Konstantinov). Ordinary tourists are attracted to this city by a museum-reserve with a palace, parks and ponds. It is difficult to list all the sights of Gatchina. Their photos are numerous, probably you have already seen some or other corners of the palace park on posters, stamps, on TV. But it's better to see the beauty of Gatchina once with your own eyes.
City `s history
The first written mention of the villageunder the name Hotchino appeared in 1499, in the document "Novgorod scribe book." It is also known that in 1712 the Gatchina manor belonged to the sister of Peter the Great Natalia Alexeevna. But the monuments from those distant times, alas, did not survive. So Gatchina would be a quiet hamlet, if in 1765 Catherine II did not give this estate to her favorite, the 27-year-old Count Grigory Orlov. He undertook to equip his new territories. Then the first sightseeing of Gatchina appeared. The Count was a great hunter of the hunt, so he built a "Zverinets" here, a kind of reserve for animals that were intended for free-range hunting. Now it is a park with the same name. It is located in the northern part of the main Palace Complex.
After the death of her pet, Catherine donatedThe estate to his son Paul, who recently returned from a trip to France. It happened almost on the eve of the Revolution, in 1783. Impressed with the luxury of the French aristocracy and the royal court (which prompted the people to radical changes in the country), Pavel Petrovich began to create from the hunting grounds of Orlov something similar to Chantilly Castle. Sights of Gatchina were replenished with such structures as the Venus Pavilion on the artificial island of Love, a 32-meter obelisk, greenhouses, stables. The king issued from Italy the famous architect Vincenzo Brenna, who began to remodel the rooms of Orlov, built by Antonio Rinaldi.
Perhaps, one palace, no matter how beautifulthere would be its interiors, could not attract the attention of numerous tourists. Parks are the true sights of Gatchina, because of which the site has become a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Vincenzo Brenna made a lot of efforts to create man-made landscapes. This lake White, Black, Silver, as well as regular and landscape parks Sylvia, Own, Dutch (Upper and Lower). By the way, Paul I granted Gatchina the status of the city, for which grateful residents established a monument to the tsar near the palace.
Beautiful nature, decorated with all kinds ofluxury palace, parks, gazebos, ponds and openwork bridges made Gatchina the favorite residence of the imperial family. Here consistently lived Paul I, Nicholas I, Alexander II, Alexander III. Each new emperor added something to the arrangement of the palace and parks, but also arranged the city. So, the railway was built here in 1853. And in 1881 an unprecedented miracle occurred for the Russian Empire - the city of Gatchina became fully electrified with the "candles of Yablochkov". In 1879, on the Silver Lake, the first Russian submarine was tested, and in 1909 aircraft were launched. In 1914 the Intercession Cathedral was consecrated - the largest church in the Leningrad region.
Other sights of Gatchina
Imperial family residence as a magnetattracted the higher and middle light to settle nearby. Soon Gatchina gained fame as a place where "green, sublime, cheap." In the vicinity of the palace and park complex there are twenty-six manors of the 19th century. They are associated with the names of AS Pushkin, KF Ryleev, II Shishkin, VV Nabokov, AI Kuprin, IN Kramskoy, IV Severyanin and other artists and writers . The map of Gatchina with sights, which can be purchased at the ticket office of the museum, will help you to find all these objects.
How to get to the museum
The easiest way to get to Gatchina by train. From the Baltic station of Petersburg two trains go to this city. One goes to the settlement, and the second one comes very close to the palace and park complex. If you need a museum, take a ticket for the train, which arrives at the Baltic station of Gatchina. You can also get to the parks on the minibuses No. 18 and 18a (they depart from the metro station "Moskovskaya") or bus No. 431. On your own car you should drive along the Kiev highway. The museum works daily, except Monday, from 10 am to 6 pm. In principle, it is always interesting there. But the exclusive action in the palace and park complex takes place on the third Saturday of September, when the whole city celebrates the day of Gatchina. This is a kind of historical show, when a "story in the faces" unfolds before the eyes of the audience. Guests of the residence are welcomed by Paul I himself, accompanied by his retinue. A military parade takes place on the parade ground of the palace. Then the epoch replaces the other, and gradually the modern creative teams perform in front of the audience, as well as parachutists and pilots of the local flying club demonstrate their skills. It's not for nothing that the well-known creator of the "dead loop" Nesterov studied in Gatchina. The city day ends with colorful and pompous fireworks.