Sewage for a bath with their own hands: a scheme and step-by-step instruction on the device

A comfortable bathhouse on your site is a dream that can always be made a reality on its own. One of the key moments of its construction is the solution of the problem of removal of waste effluent.

How do you set up sewers for a bath with your own hands and what points to take into account when designing and installing a system, let's take a closer look.

Type of sewer system

The device of a properly designed waste water disposal system is being pushed not only by aesthetic standards, but also by current requirements aimed at maintaining environmental safety.

Sewage: waste disposal
According to standards 30-02-97, collection and testing of wastewater from a bath and shower should be carried out with the help of cleaning and filtering facilities in which sand and gravel dumping is provided.

Constructive solutions of autonomous sewers erected during the construction of baths,maybe a lot. Three of them are most effective:

  1. Free-flow system - involves the movement of waste water on it by gravity. This effect is achieved through a properly maintained angle of the pipeline.
  2. Pressure system - provides for the forced transportation of waste with the use of pumping equipment.
  3. By connecting to the existing autonomous or centralized drainage system.

When arranging the gravity system, the angle of the line is determined by the diameter of the pipes.

Allowable pipe sizes and slope angle
According to clause 18.2 of SNiP 2.04.01-85, the slope of the sewage system, depending on the diameter of the pipes used, should be about 15 millimeters per each running meter

The gravity system is non-volatile, but it is quite problematic to correctly design it with difficult terrain.

The pressure system is volatile and costs more expensive than non-pressure. But she easily solves problems that can not cope with gravity. In order to be able to transport wastewater over long distances, when installing a pressure system it is important to take care of the insulation of technical elements in the cold season.

Pressure system: arrangement option
The scheme of arrangement of pressure independent sewage with the connection of pumping equipment in the basement of the building when the septic tank is located above the pipe leaving the building

The service life of a pressure sewer system is not calculated for more than a decade, and the cost of its device is more than paid for. The main thing is to use pumping equipment equipped with a grinder, which grinds the solid particles falling into the drain.

Connecting the pipeline to a centralized sewage system is less labor intensive, but at the same time more troublesome. Since only a few bath owners can put it into practice, we will not study its features in detail.

Regardless of the type of sewage system chosen for the bath, it is extremely important to observe the straightness of the highway. If turning points are provided for laying the pipeline, then inspection wells will need to be built in the places of their arrangement.

Determination of terrain conditions and soil type

The first thing that needs to be done when constructing a sewage system in a bath is to determine the condition of the soil on the site. At this stage it is important to identify:

  1. Groundwater level
  2. The point of soil freezing in winter.

The depth at which the pipes of the external sewage system should be laid and equip the septic tank directly depends on this.

How to place the pipes
Knowing the level of groundwater and taking into account the freezing point of the soil in the winter, you will ensure trouble-free operation of the sewer system

Information about the depth of soil freezing can be obtained from reference books, or by talking with neighbors who have already performed similar work.

You can find out the type of soil by performing simple manipulations and checking the figures with the data in the table below. To do this, in the place where you plan to lay the pipeline, you need to dig a hole with a depth of 25-30 cm below the mark of freezing. Sample for the study taken from the bottom of the excavated pit. A soil sample is first ground between the fingers, and then rolled into a ball.

Sample Performance Table
A piece of land taken on trial is evaluated visually and is studied tactilely, comparing its observations with tabular data and making the appropriate conclusions based on this.

When dealing with loams and clay soil, which are among the strong eruptive soils, when laying the external sewage system, the bottom of the trenches will have to be equipped with a sand "cushion".Acting as a damper, the sand will prevent damage to the pipeline during the spring movements of the soil.

Choosing a place for the construction of a septic tank

To unpleasant odors do not annoy the owners and guests of the site, it is important to correctly calculate the location of the facility.

Septic plan for sanitary standards
Regardless of the size and type of construction of the sewage treatment plant, in determining the location of its position should be guided by the applicable sanitary standards

The distance of the point of reception of effluent should be:

  • to the basement of the bath - 4-7 m;
  • to the point of water intake - from 10 m;
  • to green spaces - from 2 meters;
  • to the road - 5 m.

In SNiP 2.04.03-85 the points are also spelled out the minimum allowable distance that should be maintained from the septic tank to the border with the neighboring section. It should be at least 3 meters.

Sewage scheme design

Design and installation of autonomous sewer system includes two mandatory parts:

  • internal - includes communications that are laid indoors;
  • outdoor - combines communications outside the building.

The project of laying of sewer system at desire can be executed and own forces.

Option plan with strip line
The scale plan of the structure, taking into account the thickness of the bearing walls and interior partitions, is easiest to draw on graph paper or as a checkered sheet

To simplify calculations on the plan, you must specify:

  1. Places installation points plumbing fixtures.
  2. The dimensions of the premises and the distance from the points of discharge to partitions.
  3. The place of withdrawal of the main highway.
  4. Installation of the fan pipe (if a toilet is provided).

On the plan, the plumbing fixtures are connected to the main pipe in the shortest and at the same time convenient path. The main task is to minimize the number of turns of the highway.

After that, the length of the communications is summed up, not forgetting to add an allowance for the thickness of the outer wall, and proceed to drawing up the drawing of the external wiring.

The basic rules to consider when designing outdoor wiring:

  1. At the junction of the internal and external sewage settle observation hatch.
  2. At the turning points of the highway and the places where the lateral branches of the pipeline branch out, they build manholes.
  3. The first inspection well is placed no closer than 3 meters from the bath and no further than 12 meters.

According to the prescribed norms of SNiP, when laying the external sewage with pipes D 100-150 mm every 15-30 meters of a direct line, it is necessary to build viewing wells.

Variant of accommodation of differential tanks
If there is a toilet in the room, and the building itself is erected in a relief area with a large angle of inclination, you will need to build a multi-stage system that involves the use of differential wells

When dealing with a relatively flat area, when laying the outdoor network throughout its length, in order to ensure uninterrupted operation of the system, it is only necessary to withstand a tilt angle of 10-15 mm per meter.

Options for arrangement of water seal

Distribution of fetid odor where there is sewage is not uncommon. Getting rid of it helps installation of a water seal. The design is an improvised water plug, which is always in the cavity of the pipe, even during periods when the bath is temporarily not used. The main purpose of the device is to separate two adjacent gaseous media, cutting off unpleasant odors coming from the septic tank.

U-shaped siphon
The simplest version of the water seal is to connect a U-shaped siphon to the pipeline, which is constructed from three shaped elements in the form of taps.

Simple design has one drawback - with rare operation of the system, the liquid evaporates over time. For such rarely used systems it is better to install a “dry” water seal.

The design of the "dry" water seal
"Dry" water seal is a complex structure, equipped with an elastic membrane and a spring mechanism that blocks the exit from the pipe

This design is convenient because when the liquid enters the system under the action of the generated pressure, the valve is lowered, opening the way for the flow, and after its passage it returns to its original position.

In the absence of the opportunity to purchase a finished product, you can build a similar structure on your own.

Homemade trap from the pipe
The basis for the manufacture of home-made "dry" hydraulic shutter made plastic pipe D50 mm, which is equipped with an adapter 50/110 mm

For the manufacture of hydraulic seal wide edge of the adapter is cut at an angle of 30 °. A circle of D 110 mm is cut out of dense rubber and fixed to the cut point. The finished design is placed at the exit of the pipe from the septic tank.

Selection of necessary materials

Before you make a reliable sewage system for the bath, you must select the quality elements of the pipeline.

For laying the internal and external network in the modern market there are several types of pipes.The main ones are:

  • Cast iron - durable, but heavy, and therefore extremely uncomfortable to install. The price for them is quite high.
  • Asbestos-cement - inexpensive products whose operating parameters are inferior to plastic and cast-iron analogues. Due to the fact that they have a rough inner surface, which has many tiny recesses, they should not be used in the arrangement of a free-flow system.
  • Plastic - universal option, suitable for arranging any type of sewer system. They are inexpensive in price, easy to install and durable in operation.

When laying an autonomous sewage system in suburban areas, plastic pipes are the most common.

Combination of pipes of different caliber
For a bathhouse with a steam room, when laying a line of a self-flowing system, pipes D 100-110 mm are allowed to be used, and pipes D50 mm are used to connect plumbing to the main line

They are available with or without sockets. To simplify the installation of long products, fittings and other fittings are produced for them.

For laying a horizontal pipeline in the walls of the building, choose pipes of gray color D110 cm, for vertical cuttings when installing receivers - pipes D50 mm and D110 cm.When laying the external pipeline - PVC pipes of yellow-red color of the same size. Adapters are used to connect elements of different diameters.

Internal system

It is more correct to complete the construction of sewage systems even at the stage of building a bath. But there are situations when it is necessary to equip the already finished exploited buildings. The volume of work performed and their sequence in each case will be different.

Installation of the system during the construction phase

After the foundation has been erected, the connection points for gangways, sinks and other plumbing elements are determined.

Creation of U-shaped trenches
In places of laying the main branches of the system, trenches are dug 50-60 cm deep with respect to the level of the soil, the bottom of which is leveled taking into account the angle of inclination towards the septic tank

The depth of the pipe from the earth's surface to the top of the laid pipe should be:

  • for the southern regions - 70 cm;
  • for the middle band - from 90 to 120 cm;
  • for the northern regions - from 150 to 180 cm.

If the height of the basement reaches 30-40 cm, then the depth of the laid trenches should be about 80-100 cm relative to the top point of the raised base.

Laying the pipeline in accordance with the scheme of sewage should begin with the installation of the main pipe, not forgetting to observe the slope. From it will depart large nodal elements and side branches, made of their elements of the same or smaller diameter. In the final form, all the plums provided for in the steam room should be connected to a single pipeline.

Under the end of the outlet pipe digging a hole for the arrangement of water flow. To check the correct slope of the pipes do a test drain. To do this, alternately in all the drain holes pour small portions of water. In the bucket placed at the end of the outlet pipe, the same volume of liquid should be poured as it was poured into the holes.

Installation of vertical otvodkov
At the points of connection of sanitary equipment, vertical pipe slips are mounted, which are covered with plugs to prevent clogging with foreign objects.

The height of the vertical layers is done with a margin. After filling the floor and installing trapikov they will be easy to cut. At the same stage, mount the vent riser.

If the sewage device in the bath is performed on the site, which is located in a region with a cold climate, you should take care of the insulation of pipes.

For insulation, you can use:

  • foam semi-cylinders;
  • fibrous materials;
  • polyethylene foam rolls.

To reduce the loudness of the sounds created by the functioning system, the pipes can be additionally wrapped with noise absorbing material.

Waterproofing and sand dumping
On top of the laid pipes lining the film, providing a reliable layer of insulation, after which they form a sand "pillow" with a height of 10-15 cm

Flooring in the bath can be organized in two ways: by creating a leaking floor, which involves laying boards with a gap of 5 mm, or by creating an inclined surface. When choosing the second method, it is important to ensure that when laying the topcoat, the slope in the direction of the ladle is maintained so that the water used does not accumulate, but immediately flows into the drain.

Laying of sewage in the already finished building

Dirty water drainage system can be installed in rooms that have already been put into operation. To do this, you also need to draw up a wiring diagram, denoting connection points. In places of laying the pipeline will have to open the floor.

The height of the placement of sewers
Installation of sewer branches is carried out at the level of the foundation, and for the withdrawal of the main highway in one of the walls of the house a hole of the appropriate diameter is drilled

When installing the ladders in the steam room and washing it is important to observe three basic requirements:

  1. Drainage ladders in the steam room and bath have a flush with the floor.
  2. The gaps of the system are treated with moisture-resistant smoothing compounds.
  3. Tiles lined only after the installation of the ladder.

For connection of a toilet bowl and arrangement of ventilation in a toilet establish the tee.

To reduce the risk of formation of deposits on the walls of the pipeline, which leads to blockage of the passage diameter and clogging of the drainage well, install a filter grate in the shower and on the drain hatches in the bath. It will catch the bath leaves and small debris.

Laying of the external sewerage

The key element of the outdoor wastewater disposal system is a septic tank. It can be a construction in the form of a drainage well or a two-chamber treatment structure.

Construction of sewage treatment plant

If the bath is designed for a family of 2-3 people, it doesn’t provide a toilet and do not use it so often, you can limit yourself to building a primitive output. For this purpose, having maintained the distance specified by sanitary standards, they dig a drainage well.

But it can be installed only on soils characterized by a high level of moisture permeability. These include sandy sands, sandy soils and stony soils.

Line Laying Option
Having defined the place of arrangement of the drainage pit, perform the marking of the site and choose the way of laying the sewer line to it

The construction of the sewage treatment plant is performed in the following sequence:

  1. In the marked area, a excavation is dug, the depth of which is 1–1.5 meters higher than the mark of soil freezing.
  2. The bottom of the pit lay out a 10-centimeter layer of clay.
  3. From above they line the claydite or crushed stone-sand dumping, forming a layer 40-50 cm in height. It will perform the function of drainage.
  4. To prevent crumbling of the earth walls of the excavation, they are lined with bricks, laying out rows in a staggered pattern, or with ready-made concrete rings.

If desired, the walls of the drainage well can be laid out with tire covers. To do this, dig a pit, the diameter of which allows you to fit 4-5 laid out on each other used tires.

Used tire septic tank
The bottom of the excavation is leveled and covered with coarse gravel, forming a layer of 25-30 cm thick, on top of which car tires are placed row by row

To prevent the tire from moving after the first tier has been laid, it is advisable to drive four stakes along the circumference. To increase the strength of the structure, the place of contiguity of tires can be treated with bitumen. When laying each tier to eliminate silting and improve drainage on the sides of each tire fall asleep rubble and pieces of broken bricks.

If the soil of the site on which the bath is located, does not let the water flow well, you should think about installing a ready-made polymer septic tank or about purchasing a deep cleaning station.

Models of storages of stocks
The required volume of polymer septic tanks and deep cleaning stations is determined from the calculation of the total three-day norm of wastewater, not forgetting to make a stock of 10-15%

The main advantage of such systems is environmental safety. Accumulated wastewater will not be able to leak through the walls of waterproof materials, and therefore just will not harm the soil and groundwater.

Due to the vital activity of aerobic or anaerobic bacteria, solid waste is decomposed into simple elements, thereby decreasing in volume by dozens of times. As it accumulates, it is only necessary to periodically pump out the contents of the septic tank, resorting to the services of vacuum trucks.

Trenching and Pipeline Installation

To lay a trunk, they dig a trench, giving it a U-shape. Its depth should be below the ground freezing point. The bottom of the trench is thoroughly tamped and leveled, not forgetting to withstand the bias towards the drainage system. On top of the tamped bottom, they lined a crushed stone “cushion” at the same angle and laid pipes.

At the turning points of the highway, there are viewing wells - pits with concreted bottom and fortified walls.

Version of the well
In order to protect the sewage passing through the main line from freezing during the winter period, the openings of the manholes should be covered with double covers

To enhance the effect, the inner walls of the manhole are lined with heat insulating material, and the outer walls are covered with sawdust and earth.

The pipe is led to the drain hole at an angle, having previously made a hole in the wall under it. If the drainage well is made of tire covers, the drain pipe is taken out between the first and second tires or through a hole made in the upper tier.

The cover for a septic tank can be executed from a wooden board or a cut of sheet metal. To ensure the flow of oxygen in the lid, a hole is made for the installation of the pipe.

At the final stage, it remains only to make a test discharge in order to check the correct slope of the sewer pipes and tamp the area around the walls of the upper part of the sewage treatment plant.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

The material presented in the videos will help to put the theoretical foundations into practice and avoid mistakes when installing the sewage system.

How to lay sewer pipes:

The organization of the drain in the bath:

How to build a septic tank of tires:

In the future, to ensure the stability of the sewage system for the bath, it is important to regularly clean the walls of the storage facility. This will reduce the risk of soil clogging by particulate matter present in the wastewater.

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