Rings for a well with their own hands: step-by-step manufacturing techniques for reinforced concrete rings
For the construction of well mines once used only natural materials: stones and logs. With the advent of reinforced concrete products, the technology of construction of autonomous water supply facilities has become much simpler.
Now to strengthen the walls of the mine in the course are special reinforced concrete rings for wells, which are produced in the factory.
Typical sizes of reinforced concrete rings
If for some reason it is impossible to use finished products, then the owner of a country or suburban area should think about options for their self-production.
To do this, it is necessary to make a form from scrap materials, install a reinforcing mesh in it, and then pour concrete solution mixed in strictly defined proportions.
In factories producing reinforced concrete products and structures, special labeling of products is used.Standard ring wells have the same height, equal to 900 mm. The wall thickness of the cylinder and its diameter may be different. Wall thickness varies from 70 mm to 140, and diameter - from one to two meters.
With an increase in the diameter of the ring and the thickness of its walls, the consumption of concrete increases. The mass of the product also depends on the given dimensions. To reduce the mass of the finished product, they try to reduce only the height of the gb-ring, and make the walls as thick as possible. On sale you can see products in height 350, 450 or 500 mm. They are also called additional rings and are installed at the completion of the work, when the product of standard dimensions no longer enters entirely into the dug well.
Another way to "legally" reduce the mass of the well ring is to use reinforcing mesh. The thickness of the walls can be 6-8 cm, which does not impair the strength characteristics of the product. Therefore, it is better to make reinforced concrete rings with reinforcement for the construction of a well on the site.
It is necessary to reduce the weight of the well ring in order not to use lifting equipment during installation work.This is important for summer residents and gardeners who have decided not only to make products with their own hands, but also to move them around the site without the involvement of special equipment.
For the preparation of concrete, going further to the manufacture of rings, you will need:
- cement (binding material);
- sand (fine aggregate);
- crushed stone (coarse aggregate);
For quality concrete buy cement brand "400", packaged in paper bags of 25 kg. If you do not immediately use the building material, then worry about its proper storage. Bags are stored in a dry place. Better yet, pour the cement into closed iron containers. If possible, use purchased cement immediately after purchase.
For the mixing of concrete, stock up on quartz sand, which is considered the ideal fine filler.Silty, clay and other types of impurities contained in the brought in bulk material will adversely affect the quality of the concrete mix. Therefore, this sand is washed with water, eliminating it from unnecessary impurities.
Not every crushed stone is suitable for the kneading of concrete that goes to cast rings. Granite rubble is selected with grains having a cubic shape that promotes better adhesion of the material with other ingredients of the concrete mix. Do not use crushed stone plate (needle) shape. Crushed stone contaminated with clay is also washed with water before mixing.
Granite rubble with a size of fractions not exceeding a quarter of the thickness of the product is purchased for casting reinforced concrete rings. For the ring with a 10-centimeter wall, crushed stone is suitable, the grain size of which will not exceed 20 mm.
The ratio of ingredients in the concrete solution
The properties of a concrete solution are directly dependent on the number of components included in its composition, as well as on their volume and mass. In drawing up the ratio between the three main ingredients necessary for obtaining high-quality concrete, it is assumed that the amount of cement is one.
For casting well rings shut the concrete mix, taking cement, sand and gravel in a proportional ratio by volume of 1: 2: 3 or by weight of 1: 2.5: 4. For example, a bucket of cement, two buckets of sand and three buckets of gravel are poured into a container. Add half a bucket of water. Or take 100 kg of cement (4 bags), add 250 kg of sand and 400 kg of rubble. Add 50 liters of water. The preparation of one cubic meter of concrete takes 300 kg of cement M-400, 750 kg of sand and 1200 kg of gravel. The mixture is diluted with 150 liters of water.
How is the amount of water calculated?
Water affects the mobility of the concrete mix and the strength of the products after it hardens. The ratio of water and cement in the solution is called the water-cement ratio and is designated B / C. For reinforced concrete rings, this value should be no more than 0.5-0.7. In the above examples, the W / C was 0.5. In this case, the mass or volume of the taken cement is divided in half and the required displacement of water is obtained.
More liquid solution is easier to fill in the form and ram, but it will have to keep longer in the workpiece. Increases the time for the initial solidification of the solution. The mixture, which does not creep away after compressing it with a palm into a lump, allows you to immediately remove the workpiece and use it to stamp the next product.However, it is more convenient to tamper with vibrators.
Methods of mixing concrete solution
Manual method of mixing the components of the concrete mix is now rarely used. Concrete mixers and handicrafts better cope with this time-consuming task.
Sand and cement are poured into a concrete mixer, then water is added, and then crushed stone, previously moistened with water. After receiving a homogeneous mass, the equipment is turned off and the solution is poured into a container on wheels. This allows you to take heavy concrete to the place of casting the ring.
Making split forms
Before you start making rings for the construction of the well with your own hands, you must first make a metal detachable form for pouring concrete or wooden formwork from the components. Both that, and another becomes from the improvised materials which are available on a site or borrowed from friends.
Many companies offer the ready-made molds for making w / w rings. Acquire them for one time is unprofitable, it is better to rent.You can see how they are designed, and borrow some elements to build your own form.
How to make a metal mold?
The self-made folding form consisting of two rings of different diameter is made of metal barrels, pipes, air ducts and other metal structures suitable for this purpose. Two cylinders are inserted one into the other so that between them remains the same distance equal to the thickness of the well ring.
To external and internal parts of the form can be easily removed after the concrete has set, it is necessary to cut them into two parts with a grinder. It is more convenient to remove the inner cylinder if it consists of three separate parts. Although you can cope with the two, you only have to tinker inside the ring for longer.
On all components of the form, it is necessary to provide for the presence of fasteners that do not allow the form to move apart during the filling of the inter-ring space with concrete. As fasteners use:
- door or window canopies;
- welded lugs, bolted together;
- other devices that can cope with the task.
It is advisable to weld the handles on the walls of the cylinders in order to make it easier to tear the mold from the concrete. In order to maximally facilitate the process of capturing the mold, it is recommended that cylinder surfaces in contact with concrete be lined with plastic wrap. It is possible to lubricate these surfaces with used engine oil, but this is not welcomed by environmentalists.
To maintain the same distance between the cylinders, use wooden or metal struts, securely fixing the position of the two ring-shaped parts of the form.
It is important to ensure that the external blank formwork for reinforced concrete rings is easily opened outand the inner one was also freely moved in the opposite direction.
How to assemble a wooden formwork?
For a good carpenter, it is not difficult to make a formwork for casting concrete rings from scraps of sawn timber. Two cylindrical surfaces are made of wooden rings, to one side of which boards are nailed. Their thickness must be at least 20 mm, but not more than 40 mm.
On both sides, the boards are well rounded, making the surface as smooth as possible. For ease of disassembly, the wooden cylinder is cut into four pieces. To fasten the neighboring blanks use wooden strips, bolts, hooks, steel brackets and other devices.
The inner wall of the wooden formwork, which has a smaller diameter, is assembled in the same way. Only the basis is taken two wooden rings of smaller diameter and the same board (20-40 mm) for plating. If in the first case the boards are nailed on the inside circle, then in the second - on the outside.
As a result, there are two added cylinders, which form a space between their surfaces, which is subsequently filled with concrete. The smaller cylinder is cut into three pieces.If cut in half, it is necessary to provide for a small gap (1.5-2 cm), which facilitates the filming of internal formwork.
The method of making wooden rings
Wooden rings for formwork cut out of a square shield, knocked out of 20-mm boards, laid in two layers perpendicular to each other. The first layer is laid across, and the second - along. The side of a square shield is calculated taking into account:
- the inner diameter of the concrete ring (1000 mm);
- thickness of its wall (80 mm);
- formwork board thickness (20 mm);
- the width of the wooden ring formwork (150 mm).
In parentheses are approximate numbers that allow to calculate the side of a square shield. So, to 1000 mm we add two times 20 mm, then two times 80 mm and two times 150 mm. As a result, we get: 1500 mm or 1.5 m.
From one shield, a large ring for external formwork and a small ring for internal formwork are cut out at once. Rings mark on the shield with a pencil and rope, replacing the compass. The nail is driven into the intersection point of the diagonals of the square, which is found by intersecting two stretched flagella connecting the opposite corners of the shield.
A rope is tied to a carnation and, measuring the necessary distances, draw four concentric circles with a pencil. The radius of the largest circle is 750 mm, the second is 600 mm, the third is 500 mm, and the fourth is 350 mm. Next, a hacksaw, jigsaw or chainsaw sawing on the drawn circles, getting two rings of formwork. The same is done again, getting a second pair of rings.
It remains to nail to the rings on the right side of the board, whose thickness is 20 mm, and the length is one meter (height of the concrete ring). Boards arrange each other as closely as possible. After the manufacture of cylindrical walls of the outer and inner formwork, proceed to cutting them into four parts. So get a split wooden form for the manufacture of concrete rings at home.
Manufacturing reinforcing frame
The use of reinforcement allows to reduce the thickness of the ring, and hence its weight. At the same time, the strength characteristics of the product and its service life increase.For the reinforcing frame will require:
- steel rods with a diameter of 8-10 mm (10 pieces);
- steel wire with a diameter of 8-10 mm (about 5 m);
- thin wire.
Calculate the length of the frame. To do this, we recall the formula for calculating the length of a circle: the number Pi (equal to 3.14, rounded to 3) must be multiplied by the diameter. The diameter of the circle is taken equal to 104 cm, so that the frame passes in the middle of the concrete ring. We multiply this number by 3, we get 312 cm. We divide this number by 10, we get at 31.2 cm. We round up to 31 cm. So, we lay the steel rods on a flat surface at a distance of 31 cm from each other.
Next, we weld to them pieces of wire 315-318 cm long through 160 mm. We take the wire a little longer than the calculated length of the frame so that when the blank is rolled into a ring, it can be welded or twisted. From steel thick wire, we manually bend the mounting hinges and weld them to the frame (can be screwed with thin wire). All frame ready. If there is no welding machine, then all elements of the frame can be twisted with thin wire.
Pouring concrete into the mold
When all the preparatory work is completed, proceed to the manufacture of the well ring. For this:
- a sheet of iron or a wooden shield is laid on a flat surface;
- establish forms (one in another), carefully fix the parts of the formwork;
- between the outer and inner walls of the formwork lower the reinforcing frame, fixing its position with wedges;
- thick concrete solution (V / C = 0.5) is placed in the annulus space in small layers (about 100 mm) and sealed using a steel pin with a diameter of 20 mm;
- a creamy solution (B / C = 0.7) is immediately poured into the mold to the brim, and then the mixture is compacted with a pin;
- after filling out the entire form, proceed to leveling the end of the concrete ring, reporting the mortar with a trowel where it is not enough;
- the product is covered with polyethylene or thick cloth;
- the formwork is removed after 3-4 days (if the concrete was thick), after 5-7 days (if the solution was liquid), leaving the ring on a metal sheet or wooden board;
- the reinforced concrete ring is wrapped with packaging film to allow the concrete to ripen evenly for 2-3 weeks, gaining final strength;
It is recommended to wet the product with water every 4-5 days during the ripening of concrete.
Useful video on the topic
In the video, the master alone collects the metal mold, covers the walls with waste oil, pours all the ingredients into the concrete mixer, and then pours the ready-made concrete solution into the garden wheelbarrow, brings it to the form for the rings and starts laying the concrete in the formwork with a shovel.
With the help of special equipment, the mixture in the form of a master carefully seals so that there are no defects in the well walls. The video shows how it is easier to remove the formwork, starting with the inner ring. By the way, the well ring is made without a reinforcing frame, so the thickness of the product is at least 15 cm.
In this video the form is designed for casting a thinner reinforced concrete ring. As a reinforcement master uses steel wire, which is placed directly into the mixture during the process of pouring the mold. In the story in more detail shows the process of laying the ingredients in the mixer.
As you can see, to make reinforced concrete rings for a well is quite capable of any healthy man.Special skills in the manufacture of forms and mixing concrete solution is not required.
Little tricks can be viewed in video stories on this topic. In a month a person can mold up to ten reinforced concrete rings using one form using his own resources. This is quite enough for the arrangement of the mine well. Its depth depends on the level of occurrence of the aquifer in your area.