Projects of frame houses, the main stages of work
Modern construction technologies and high-tech materials have significantly simplified the construction of private houses. Today, frame houses that combine affordable cost and excellent performance characteristics are very popular.
We equip the foundation
At construction of such frame houses several types of the base can be used:
The pile and screw version of the base can be used at construction on a steady soil. But sandy and marshy ground for the use of such a foundation is not suitable. When performing pile foundations at the site, a breakdown of the terrain is carried out, after which, in compliance with the geometry and taking into account the available project documentation, the piles used are dug into the ground. For such obesting, special equipment is used or this work is done manually.
In determining the required number of piles used, they are based on the design documentation and on the rate of arrangement of such elements, which is usually 150 centimeters when erecting a frame house. The easiest way to do it is to order the appropriate special equipment when performing the pile-screw foundation, which will allow you to quickly and effectively complete the foundation of your future home.
Pillar foundations are not so demanding on soil stability. Such a foundation can be used on podzolic and sandy soil. Arrangement of such a foundation begins with a breakdown of the terrain. They designate the perimeter of the building being erected by stretched twine, after which they dig out square holes located 150 centimeters apart from each other. When performing pits, it is necessary to perform the correct square with sides 40 by 40 and 60 by 60 centimeters. The depth of the column foundation depends on the freezing of the soil in winter. On average, such holes are made to a depth of 100 centimeters.
After completing the corresponding pits for the foundation, it is necessary to tamp the bottom of them by filling up a ten-meter layer of fine gravel.Such a crushed cushion provides drainage and protects the foundation from erosion. The pillow is also rammed and a reinforcing lattice made of rods with a diameter of 10 centimeters is laid on top. Such reinforcement along its length should be equal to the side of the hole made. In fact, we have formed cells with dimensions of 100 by 100 millimeters, which are connected by baked wire. This lattice secured
They are suitable holders that allow you to hold the valve in a raised position.
Concrete is poured into completed pits, while the strength of the mixture must be at least M450. It is recommended to use steel reinforcement to increase the strength of the foundation of the house. The thickness of such a cushion of concrete is at least 10 centimeters. It takes about 28 days to completely solidify the foundation.
Making a house frame
Initially, the piping is performed from below, for which channel bars are laid on the base, on top of which the cut board is mounted. For the manufacture of such a lower strapping you will need four beams with a cross section of 150 to 50 centimeters.Completed strapping is mounted on a foundation on which sheets of roofing material are laid.
At the next stage of construction, corner bars are installed. Connection of bars, genital lags and racks with the lower strapping is carried out with special metal bolts. At this stage of construction screws with nails are not used. The quality of fixing the corner bars should be given special attention, in the subsequent they have an increased load.
The device of the walls and roof in the frame house
Corner vertical bars are made of lumber with a cross section of 150 to 50 millimeters. In the event that a one-story frame house is being built, then the corner bars should not be further strengthened. But if the construction of a two-story house is being carried out, then it is necessary to additionally use channel bars that vertically reinforce the erected structure.
From above, vertically raised corner bars are fastened with upper strapping, which is performed almost identically with lower strapping, and the timber used is fastened with appropriate pins.
Having completed the installation of the corner bars and having completed the top trim, it is necessary to mount the floor logs, which are made of a bar with dimensions 150 to 50 millimeters.Installation of the subfloor is also carried out, for which you can use flooring and edging board with a thickness of about 30-40 mm. Having equipped such basis of a floor, it is possible to start installation of an intermediate wall bar. Choose a cross section of such a wall beam, depending on the climatic zones where construction is carried out. In the northern regions it is recommended to use a wall beam with a size of 150 by 40 millimeters. But in the southern regions there will be enough material with dimensions of 100 by 40 millimeters. The technology of construction and assembly of the frame does not imply the use of nails for fastening. In this case, you need to use special locks and long studs.
Wall intermediate timber is mounted with an interval of approximately 100 centimeters. When installing such an intermediate curtain beam, you should consider the places where windows and doorways will be located later. The timber is reinforced by small wooden lintels. After completing the frame, you can proceed to the installation of the ceiling beams and only then proceed to the lining of the constructed frame of the house.
Select the used heater
All used insulation can be divided into two categories: synthetic and natural origin. Sawdust, clay and peat belong to natural insulants. Today, such natural heat insulators due to their mediocre characteristics are rarely used. Such heat insulators almost completely superseded products that are made according to modern technologies and are of synthetic origin.
Modern heaters differ in affordable cost and provide the necessary thermal protection erected structure. In frame houses the following heat insulators are used:
• Expanded clay.
• Polyurethane foam.
• Mineral wool.
Each of these materials has its own advantages. Experts recommend using mineral wool, which is characterized by affordable cost and ease of operation.
We warm and sheathe frame house
The frame should be sheathed on the outside with moisture-resistant clapboard or OSB boards. Moisture-resistant plywood in this case is preferable, but this material has a slightly higher cost.Fully sheathed from the outside of the frame, should be in the resulting niches lay mineral wool or other plate heat insulators. Using mineral wool, this heater should be inserted into the resulting niches, for which purpose it is cut several centimeters larger than the available width of the spans obtained.
In the frame of the house before proceeding to its finishing plating and decorative finishing should be placed water pipes and wiring. The wiring to be carried out should be in high-quality corrugated pipes. The inner lining is made of the same material that was used for the outer lining of the house. Similarly, perform floor and ceiling insulation. Having finished such works it is possible to start installation of a roof and decorative finishing works.
The cost of building a house turnkey
The popularity of the technology of frame construction is largely due to the cheapness of the constructed buildings. Projects of houses with an area of no more than 150 square meters, which have an open attic, are very popular. Depending on the finish used, the cost of building such a house will start at $ 200 per square meter.As you can see, such an estimated cost is one and a half to two times cheaper, rather than stone and wooden houses.
Independent construction of a frame house is not difficult, therefore, having even minimal similar experience, each homeowner will be able to build a warm and comfortable frame house to use. It is only necessary to use high-quality project documentation, which will significantly simplify construction work.