Polonsky Yakov Petrovich: biography and creativity
Among Russian writers of the XIX century there are poets andprose writers whose work does not have such a value as a contribution to the domestic literature of the Titans, like Pushkin, Gogol or Nekrasov. But without them our literature would lose the multicolor and multifacetedness, breadth and depth of reflection of the Russian world, thoroughness and completeness of the study of the complex soul of our people.A special place among these masters is occupied by the poet and novelist Polonsky. Yakov Petrovich became a symbol of the interconnection of the great Russian writers who lived at the beginning and at the end of the nineteenth century.
The native of Ryazan
My fire in the fog shines,
Sparks go out on the fly ...
The author of these lines from a song that has longis considered folk, was born in the heart of Russia, in the provincial Ryazan. The mother of the future poet - Natalya Yakovlevna - came from the old Kaftyrev family, and her father was an impoverished nobleman who served in the office of Ryazan Governor-General Pyotr Grigoryevich Polonsky. Yakov Petrovich, born in early December 1819, was the eldest of their seven children.
When Jacob was 13 years old, his motherdied, and his father, having been appointed to a public office, left for Yeravan, leaving the children in the care of his wife's relatives. By that time, Yakov Petrovich Polonsky had already been admitted to the First Men's Gymnasium of Ryazan, which was one of the centers of the cultural life of the provincial city.
Meeting with Zhukovsky
Rhyming in the years when at the zenithfame was the genius of Pushkin, it was commonplace. Among those who had a marked propensity for poetic creativity, while exhibiting remarkable abilities, was the young schoolboy Polonsky. Yakov Petrovich, whose biography is full of significant meetings and acquaintances with the best writers of Russia of the XIX century, often recalled a meeting that had a great influence on his choice of a writer's career.
In 1837 Ryazan was visited by the future emperorAlexander II. At the request of the director, Polonsky wrote a verse greeting in two verses, one of which was to be performed by the choir in a melody "God Save the Tsar!", Which became the official anthem of the Russian Empire only four years earlier. In the evening, after a successful event with the participation of the heir to the throne, the director of the gymnasium arranged a reception at which the young poet got acquainted with the author of the text of the new hymn, Vasily Andreevich Zhukovsky.
Famous poet, mentor and close friendthe great Pushkin highly appreciated Po- lonsky's poetry. Yakov Petrovich the next day after Alexander's departure, even awarded on behalf of the future king a gold watch. Zhukovsky's praise strengthened Polonsky's desire to devote his life to literature.
University of Moscow
In 1838 he became a student of the legalFaculty of Moscow University. Contemporaries have always noted the remarkable sociability, internal and external attractiveness, which differed Polonsky. Yakov Petrovich quickly acquired acquaintances among the most advanced figures of science, culture and art. Many Moscow acquaintances of university time have become for him true friends for life. Among them - poets Afanasy Fet and Apollon Grigoriev, historians Sergei Soloviev and Konstantin Kavelin, writers Alexei Pisemsky and Mikhail Pogodin, Decembrist Nikolai Orlov, philosopher and publicist Pyotr Chaadayev, great actor Mikhail Schepkin.
In those years, a close friendship between Polonsky andIvan Turgenev, who highly valued each other's talent for many years. With the help of friends the first publications of Polonsky were published - in the journal Otechestvennye Zapiski (1864) and in the form of a poetic collection Gamma (1844).
Despite the fact that the first experiments of the young poetwere positively received by critics, in particular Belinsky, his hopes of living a literary work turned out to be naive dreams. Student years of Polonsky passed in poverty and need, he was forced to constantly earn extra money by private lessons and tutoring. Therefore, when there was an opportunity to get a seat in the office of the Caucasian governor, Count Vorontsov, Polonsky left Moscow, after graduating from the university course.
On my way
Since 1844 he lives first in Odessa, thenmoved to Tiflis. At this time he met with Pushkin's brother Lev Sergeyevich, cooperating in the newspaper "Transcaucasian Herald". His poetry collections - "Sazandar" (1849) and "Several Poems" (1851) are published. In the verses of that time, a special color is felt, inspired by the poet's acquaintance with the customs of the highlanders, with the history of Russia's struggle for approval on the southern borders.
The present extraordinary abilities of Polonsky tofine arts were noticed even during training in the Ryazan gymnasium, therefore, inspired by the unique landscapes of the Caucasus and the surrounding areas, he is involved in drawing and painting. This fascination accompanies the poet throughout his life.
In 1851, Yakov Petrovich went to the capital,St. Petersburg, where he expands his circle of literary acquaintances and works hard on new verses. In 1855 another collection was published, his poems willingly publish the best literary magazines - Sovremennik and Otechestvennye zapiski, but honoraria can not provide even a modest existence. He becomes a home teacher of the son of the St. Petersburg governor Smirnov. In 1857, a family of a high-ranking official travels to Baden-Baden, along with Polonsky. Yakov Petrovich travels extensively in Europe, takes drawing lessons from French artists, gets to know many Russian and foreign writers and artists - in particular, with the famous Alexander Dumas.
In 1858 Polonsky returned to St. Petersburg withhis young wife - Elena Vasilyevna Ustyuzhskaya, whom he met in Paris. The next two years were for Yakov Petrovich one of the most tragic in life. First, he gets a serious injury, from the consequences of which he can not get rid of before the end of life, moving only with the help of crutches. Then the typhoid becomes ill and Polonsky's wife dies, and a few months later their newborn son also dies.
Despite personal dramas, the writer workssurprisingly many and fruitfully, in all genres - from small lyrical verses, operatic libretto to large in volume prose books of artistic content - remained his most interesting experiences in memoirs and journalism.
The second marriage in 1866 Polonsky combined withJosefina Antonovna Ryulman, who became the mother of their three children. She discovered in herself the abilities of a sculptor and actively participated in the artistic life of the Russian capital. Literary and creative evenings were held in Polonsky's house, in which the most famous writers and artists of that time took part. These evenings continued for some time after the death of the poet, which followed on October 30, 1898.
The legacy of Yakov Petrovich is great and is estimated asunequal. The main property of Polonsky's poetry is its subtle lyricism, originating in Romanticism enriched by the genius of Pushkin. It was not by chance that he was considered a true continuer of the traditions of the great poet, for good reason Yakov Petrovich's poems were often used in his romances by the most famous composers - Tchaikovsky, Mussorgsky, Rachmaninov and many others. At the same time, even the faithful connoisseurs of the poetic gift of Polonsky believed that there were not so many achievements in his work.
In the last third of the XIX century, Russian thinkerswere divided into two camps - "Westerners" and "Slavophiles". One of those who did not seek to express an obvious commitment to one of the parties was Polonsky. Yakov Petrovich (interesting facts about his theoretical disputes with Tolstoy are in the memoirs of contemporaries) expressed more conservative ideas about the growing of Russia into European culture, while in many ways agreeing with his friend - the obvious "Westerner" Ivan Turgenev.
He lived a life full of hard work and ideasRussian writer, having received a blessing from contemporaries of Pushkin and remaining an active poet when the Blok star was already rising. Indicative in this sense is the metamorphosis of the external appearance, which was undergone by Polonsky. Yakov Petrovich, whose photo is already technically perfect at the end of the century, appears in the portraits of the last time as a real patriarch realizing the significance of the path he has traveled.