Monarchy and republic. Forms of monarchy, the republic as a form of government
The monarchy and the republic are forms of government of the state. What features do they have? In which countries do they operate? Let's find out about this.
What is the form of government?
The form of government is one of the mostancient characteristics of the state system. Her study was puzzled even by the ancient Greeks. Previously, it defined only the principle by which power was transferred in the country. Over time, this concept has expanded.
Now the form of government completely determinesthe organizational structure of the ruling bodies in the state, in particular their composition, competence, the procedure for forming, the term of the activities of the authorities, etc. It also determines the principle and order of their interaction with the population and with each other.
Monarchy and the Republic are two main formsboard. Each is divided into several types. Besides them, there are also mixed forms of government, in which elements from both forms are present. Depending on which form prevails, a monarchic republic or a republican monarchy is singled out.
A separate view is theocratic, orIslamic, republic. In it, the board belongs to the Islamic clergy. The head of state is chosen by a special body - the Council of Experts, consisting of the most influential theologians of the country.
In ancient Greek, "monarchy" means"Autocracy". With this form of government, the supreme power is wholly or partly in the hands of one person. The monarch's office can be elected or inherited.
In ancient times it was believed that the head of suchthe state is the chosen one of God. He was the successor of traditions, an example of morality, nobility. The monarch, as a rule, enjoyed power for life and could only give it to relatives. Of course, there were elective monarchies, for example, Rzeczpospolita or Rome.
There are such forms of monarchy as absolute andconstitutional. In the first the power of the ruler is unlimited, all decisions and authorities are controlled only by him. In the second, the powers of the monarch are regulated by the constitution or traditions. It can be divided into two types:
- parliamentary - where all decisions on the management of the state are controlled by parliament, and the monarch is only the face of the country;
- dualistic - the monarch has certain powers, but his power is limited by the parliament and the constitution.
Republican government provides forelection of the head of state. Power can not be inherited, and citizens necessarily have personal and political rights. All authorities are also elected. They are formed by voting or by a national institution (parliament, council, etc.).
The main feature of the republic is electivitythe highest authorities, the specific term of government, the legal responsibility of the ruling person. The Republic as a form of government can be parliamentary, presidential and mixed.
In the presidential republic, the head of government andstate is the president. He can form and dissolve the government, without the participation of parliament. In the parliamentary republic, the president is taking second place in decision-making. He is the head of state and performs representative functions, while the parliament controls the work of the government.
In a mixed republic, the powers of both structuresare strongly intertwined. The president can form the government, but only with the participation of the parliament. Thus, the activities of the executive are controlled by both the president and the parliament.
Monarchy in Russia
Modern Russia is the presidentialrepublic. Sometimes it is defined as a mixed parliamentary-presidential republic with extended presidential powers. All rights and laws in the state are regulated by the constitution, which was adopted in 1993.
However, the republic did not always act. Instead, there was a monarchy for a long time. The history of the country goes back to the Old Russian state, founded back in 862. After it, the Russian lands united in the Moscow principality, the Russian state, the kingdom and the empire.
In the XVII century, Peter I established the absolutistmonarchy. The head of the government was subordinated to all organizations and institutions, including the church. Despite this, the actual power belonged to the supreme officials. The monarchy in Russia lasted until 1917. The last emperor was Nicholas II, who was shot with his family.
Monarchy and republic: differences, advantages and disadvantages
One-person government by the state is not uncommonwas recognized as the best and right. The supporter of the monarchy was, for example, Jean Jacques Rousseau. Aristotle considered it the most natural form of government. Nevertheless, both the monarchy and the republic have their shortcomings and dignities.
One of the advantages of the monarchy is the rapiddecision-making, lack of political struggle, interest in a strong and prosperous state on the part of the ruler, since power will pass to his children. The lifetime term of government imposes great responsibility on the monarch, gives more time for the transformation of the country.
From the strengths, the weaknesses of thissystem. Unlike the republic, in the monarchy, the ruler does not bear legal responsibility for his actions. The autocracy can create a dictatorship on the part of the head of state.
In the republic, due to the election of posts,a real democracy is possible. Here all rights are regulated by a body of laws, and not by edicts and edicts of one person. A disadvantage can be considered a longer decision-making and laws, since in this case the principle of the majority.
Only a third of the countries now are monarchies(red color on the map below). Traditionally, this status is reserved for Belgium, Bhutan, Great Britain, Denmark, Sweden, although the parliament has real power. Absolute monarchies are Muslim states: Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Brunei. In them the ruler is not only the head of the country, but also the head of the church.
The Republic, as a form of government, operatesin about 140 countries (gray on the map). The powers of the president are prevalent in the US, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Kazakhstan. The parliamentary republics are Germany, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Israel.
The mixed form of government operates in Ukraine, inCroatia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Mongolia. Theocratic features are Iran, the Vatican, as well as Turkey, Pakistan, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Mauritania. They are most clearly manifested in Iran.