Lighting for seedlings at home or how the winter illumination of plants occurs.
In January - February, even on the windowsill, the lighting is not enough for the normal development of plants: the seedlings are pale and elongated. Therefore, to organize lighting for seedlings at home and completing the crops with special fitolamps for plants, timely changing the intensity of the glow and the frequency of illumination. To ensure the alternation of "day" and "night", the lighting should not be constant. The optimal ratio of light and dark periods depends on the particular plant.
So, some prefer long days and short nights, and others vice versa. Of great importance is the "quality" of lighting. Deciduous indoor plants, for example, Monstera or philodendron, grow in nature in the shade, so the room is quite satisfied with the light of an ordinary incandescent bulb. But vegetables are more demanding, they are accustomed to grow in bright sunshine and a long day.
When lighting plants in winter, there is another simple but effective rule: the larger the plant, the more light is needed for its growth.
So, phytolamp for plants should provide:
- light must provide a certain range of electromagnetic radiation;
- the lighting must have a periodicity;
- the amount of light needed depends on the culture and seasonality.
What about and how long?
In winter, illuminate the early seedlings, vygonochny greens and houseplants.
Seedling.From the moment of emergence of seedlings, the reproduction of seedlings should occur without interruption for 3 to 4 days. Then, 2 to 3 light days are reduced to 16 hours a day, after to 14.
For lighting for seedlings at home, located on the window sill, use thin phytolamps. It is very convenient if the fitolamps for seedlings in the kit have their own set of fasteners. Most often, they are attached directly to the glass or window frame with suction cups, hooks or double-sided tape.
Seedlings in large quantities can be grown completely with artificial light in special cabinets with integrated lighting.They are suitable for any room, but when used in a cold room or basement, the plants will have to be heated. For such cases, there are ready greenhouses with lighting.
Houseplants.Illumination of indoor plants in the winter is desirable to extend by 4 to 5 hours. To do this, there are small lamps to highlight one plant and huge sets for greenhouses. To illuminate several plants at the same time, you can use a special tabletop lamp for indoor plants, with an adjustable bracket. It moves easily and looks like an ordinary lamp, suitable for use at home and in the office. A small fitolamp can be used in the winter to illuminate a blooming orchid so that it can expel more buds.
Requirements for fitolamp.
The design of plant lighting fixtures should allow to adjust their position and adjust the direction of illumination, as well as the distance to the plant. Optimally, the light should be directed from top to bottom, like solar. The minimum distance to the plant is 10 cm, the maximum is 25 to 45 cm.
If the distance from the plant to the lamp is increased by 2 times, then the light intensity will decrease by 4 times. Therefore, when installing, follow the manufacturer's recommendations.
What kind of plant lighting for seedlings to choose?
At the end of the last century there were only incandescent lamps and fluorescent lamps. The first ones do not fit the spectrum to illuminate seedlings in winter, besides they are very hot, the second ones are better: their emission spectrum is close to solar, they are so called “fluorescent lamps”. In addition, they are much more economical, although far from ideal.
Modern lighting devices operate in a narrow spectral range, the most favorable for the photosynthesis of plants. It is known that the blue radiation spectrum stimulates the growth of plants. red brings the beginning of flowering and accelerates the ripening of fruits. Therefore, phytolamps for plants work in the red and blue spectral regions, while they lack ultraviolet and infrared radiation.
Most often in the design of the phytolamps, blue and red luminescence are combined, but there are separate blue and red phytolamps: the first are used at the seedling stage, the second in the flowering and fruiting phase.
For additional lighting in the winter, you can use these lamps to illuminate the seedlings:
- incandescent lamps,
- luminescent lamps,
- discharge lamps,
- induction lamps