Laying pipes for underfloor heating: installation + how to choose a step and make a less costly circuit
Fact: the performance of the water floor heating depends on the layout and pitch of the pipes. Therefore, it is not enough to buy components for the system, it is also necessary to calculate the heat transfer, and choose the best arrangement for the rings or turns of the pipeline. Agree, no one is attracted by the prospect of investing money and not getting the planned effect.
You will learn all about the design of underfloor heating and the schemes according to which floor heating pipes are being laid from the article we have provided. Acquaintance with the information checked and systematized by us will help to arrange a perfectly working warm floor. The basis for the information we offer is the requirements of the building regulatory reference books.
The author of the article describes in detail the principle of operation of floor heating circuits. Described in detail options for the device and technology for their implementation.Visually confirm the data presented and facilitate the perception of the process informative photo and video tutorials.
Floor heating system
A distinctive feature of warm floors is that they do not have external heating structures, and the system itself accumulates and radiates the resulting heat.
With proper distribution of heat over the surface of the flooring, you can save on the coolant flow rate from 30% and more.
For the rational use of floor heating systems consider additional ways to help save:
- The length of the liquid circuit does not exceed 70 m.When choosing the optimal pitch for pipe laying, the transportation of the coolant is performed almost without loss.
- Mixing hot and cold streams.The use of water from the return allows you to spend less energy of the boiler.
- Drawing up a detailed outline of the contour placement with accurate step calculation.Preliminary distribution of furniture items will save on consumables, and accordingly, on the contour itself.
- If the system is heated to its maximum, reduce the temperature by 20 ° C.This action will help save 13% of the coolant.
In order to get the best result, you must clearly adhere to the installation technology. The heating mechanism of such a system consists of several layers, each of which has its own function.
High-quality heating of the room with the help of laying a liquid underfloor heating is organized in several stages:
- Waterproofing. This layer eliminates the appearance of products resulting from condensation. Even polyethylene film can be applied to the substrate.
- Heat insulation. The main task is to eliminate heat leakage to the lower part. In most cases, applied sheet heat insulation.Thickness should be selected based on the conditions of the room - is there a basement or basement in the house. The colder the climatic conditions, the thicker the insulation.
- Foilor heat reflecting element. Foil film to maximize the redirection of heat flow to the top. Laying this material allows you to save up to 5% on the flow of coolant.
- Pipe installation. The main device of the whole mechanism. The pipes move the heated fluid. If, when laying a heated floor, to choose the right pitch between the turns of the pipes, this will enable efficient heating with the least expenditure of heating resources.
- Screed. Provided that all previous layers were laid on a flat surface, the thickness of the screed will be minimal - 3.5 cm. Often used to fill the usual cement-sand mixture, 50 mm thick. The conductivity of the heat of this material is 0.4 W / (m * K).
- Flooring. Liquid floor allows the laying of any material. Nevertheless, the best performance, namely thermal conductivity and maximum efficiency, has ceramic tiles.
The installation technology assumes the initial arrangement of the collector unit. Only then can you proceed with the installation of individual layers of the system.
The role of the collector node
Not everyone knows that underfloor heating with a water circuit can function normally without a collector. But, as it looks in practice, they know even less.
However, in most cases the floor heating system is installed on several rooms. In this case, it is impossible to ensure uniform distribution of the coolant without a collector assembly.
Installing underfloor heating without a collector has several disadvantages: the coolant can be supplied only with the same temperature as in the general heating system, automatic air outlet is impossible, the same goes for pressure control.
Ways of arrangement of a collector
The choice of a finished mechanical or automatic collector model depends on the characteristics of the heating system.
The first type of regulating module is recommended to be installed for underfloor heating without a radiator, the second can be used in all other cases.
According to the scheme, the assembly of the distribution comb for underfloor heating is performed as follows:
- Frame installation.As a mounting area for the collector can be selected: prepared niche in the wall or collector cabinet. It is also possible to mount directly on the wall. However, the location must be strictly horizontal.
- Connection to the boiler.The supply pipeline is located at the bottom, the reverse - at the top. Ball valves must be installed in front of the frame. They will be followed by a pump group.
- Installation of the check valve with temperature limiter.After it, the collector is installed.
- Hydraulic test system.Checking the method of connection to the pump, which contributes to the pressure build-up in the heating system.
In the mixing unit, one of the required elements is considered a two- or three-way valve.This device mixes water streams of different temperature and redistributes the trajectory of their movement.
If servos are used to control the collector thermostats, then the mix of the mixing unit is expanded by a bypass and bypass valve.
Rules for calculating pipe footage
Calculate the footage of elements for the assembly of heated floors can be after charting the entire system.
The calculation takes into account the following nuances:
- In places where furniture, overall floor equipment, household appliances, pipes are not laid.
- The length of the contours with different cross-sectional sizes should correspond to the following parameters: when 16 mm, it should not exceed 70 m, 20 mm - not more than 120 m. The location of each contour corresponds to an area of 15 m2. If you do not adhere to such recommendations in the heating network, the pressure will be low.
- The discrepancy between the length of the lines is not more than 15 m.For the volumetric room is a few branches of heating.
- Provided that effective heat insulating materials are used, the optimal pipe spacing is 15 cm. If the house is located in an area with severe climatic conditions, where the temperature falls below -15 ° C, the distance should be reduced to 10 cm.
- If the installation was chosen in 15 cm increments, the material costs are 6.7 m per 1 m2. Laying pipes with an interval of 10 cm - 10 m by 1 m2.
The heat-insulated floor can be completed only with an integral pipe. Depending on the footage, purchased several or one bay with pipes. Then make its division into the desired number of contours.
Arrangements for arranging heated water floors always start from the coldest side of the room. The question of choosing the optimal heat carrier route is very important - the water temperature decreases towards the end of the circuit.
Styling methods and schemes
Schematically, the laying of pipes for arranging the liquid circuit can be done in one of the following ways:
- double serpentine;
The method of laying the contour coil is the most simple and is performed by loops. This option will be optimal for a room divided into zones of different purposes, for which it will be convenient to apply different temperature conditions.
Installation of the first loop is carried out around the perimeter of the room, then a single snake is allowed inside. Thus, in one half of the room the maximally heated coolant will circulate, in the other - cooled down, respectively, and the temperature will be different.
The coils of the coil can be positioned evenly, however, the bends of the water circuits in this case will have strong creases.
Another variety can be used - a double serpentine. In this case, the feed and return circuits are located next to each other throughout the room.
The third option is to place the turns by an angled coil. It is used exclusively for corner rooms, where there are two external walls.
The advantages of the serpentine form are simple layout and installation. The disadvantages are: temperature fluctuations in the same room, pipe bends are quite sharp, so you can’t use a small step - this can cause a pipe to break.
Using a snail layout, feed and return pipes are mounted throughout the room. They are placed parallel to each other and are installed, starting from the perimeter of the walls and moving to the center of the room.
The supply line in the middle of the room ends in a loop. Next, parallel to it, the installation of a return line is made, which is laid from the center of the room and along its perimeter, moving to the collector.
The presence of an external wall in a room may cause double pipe laying along it.
The advantages of this method include: uniform heating of the room,due to smooth bends, the system has a small hydraulic resistance, and the savings of consumables can reach 15% in comparison with the serpentine method. However, the disadvantages are also present - complex design and installation.
Basic contour mounting methods
There are only two ways of laying pipes for arranging underfloor heating - flat and concrete. In the first method, ready-made materials are used for the foundation: insulation polystyrene and panels of modular or rack type. There is no wet work that requires a long drying time, so laying is fast.
When using the second option, the heating network is bricked up. Depending on the thickness of the concrete, the time for its complete drying is calculated. The endurance of 28 days is expected for strengthening and only after it is allowed to mount the chosen floor covering. This is the most time consuming and cost-effective way.
# 1: Laying on profiled insulation boards
Arrangement of a warm floor system using this method is the simplest. As the basis here are used mats insulation polystyrene.
Standard parameters of such plates are 30 * 100 * 3 cm.They have grooves and low columns, on which the finishing material is laid.
In this case, pouring with a concrete screed is optional. If tile or linoleum is used for flooring, gypsum-fiber sheets will be laid on the base initially. The thickness of such plates should be at least 2 cm.
# 2: Modular and rack panel device
In most cases, such panels are used in houses built of wood. Fastening pipes for arranging underfloor heating is performed on a rough base.
The modular system is equipped with chipboard panels, 2.2 cm thick, on which the heating lines are laid. These modules are equipped with channels for accommodating aluminum fixing plates. With this method of laying a layer of insulation will be located in the wooden floor.
All lanes are placed with a distance of 2 cm. Starting from the applied pitch between the pipes, stripes of the appropriate length (15–30 cm) and width are used:
- 28 cm
To reduce the heat loss on the plates set the latches for pipes. If linoleum was chosen for the floor covering, one layer of gypsum-fiber boards is laid on the pipes, if the laminate or parquet board is dispensed with.
The rack and pinion flooring system is almost identical to the modular one, however, it does not use panels, but slats, the minimum width of which is 2.8 cm.
Laying is done directly on the logs with a pitch of 40-60 cm, and the distance between the slats is at least 2 cm. For insulation, choose polystyrene foam or fibrous mineral wool.
Both methods are more suitable for wooden houses. In other cases, choose a more complex version with a concrete screed.
# 3: Pipeline installation for screed
Despite the complexity of the process, the installation of a heating network with a concrete screed is the most demanded.The process consists of the following steps:
- First of all the basis is prepared. Unevenness of the subfloor is eliminated using a perforator.
- The first layer is waterproofing material. It spreads in strips so that the edges overlap each other by 20–30 cm. The film must also run onto the base of the walls by 15 cm. The joints are glued with construction tape.
- Thermal insulation is spread over it.
- A damping tape is glued between the future casting and the walls. This action is required to compensate for the expansion of the screed when the floors are heated.
- Laying reinforcing mesh. It helps to increase the strength of the screed.
- On the reinforcement according to the chosen scheme with the help of plastic puffs, the pipes are attached.
- Control check of the floor heating system is carried out by filling it with liquid and pressure testing.
- Next is installing guide beacons.
- Finishing stage - pouring cement screed.
For rooms with a large area, you should use the method of sector division, with cells no more than 30 m2. For each of them it is necessary to equip an individual circuit.
Filling of warm floors with concrete-sand mixture can be carried out with or without reinforcing mesh. If the role of insulation are polystyrene plates with connectors for contours, the use of the grid is optional.
When a standard thermal insulation material is used, a thin polymer or metal mesh is used to fix the heat-conducting line.
Nuances of choosing the optimal step
The degree of efficiency and cost of the entire circuit depends on the correct choice of the step between the laid pipes of underfloor heating.
However, its calculation depends on many factors. The standard distance between contours is 100-200 mm. It is also possible variable or constant step:
- If the heating load is less than 50 W per 1 m2, the contour step will be constant and equal to 200 mm.
- With an increased heating load of 80 W per 1 m2and more distance will be 150 mm.
- In other cases, it is necessary to apply a variable step. For example, along the perimeter of one or two external walls, the laying of the water circuit will be with the smallest step of 100 mm.Moving to the center of the room, the gaps will gradually increase to 200 mm.
In practice, if it is planned to heat floor heating economically, a 150 mm pitch is used. This indicator is optimal in almost any conditions.
If the heat loss of the building exceeds the heat transfer, it is worth thinking about its effective insulation - in this case, reducing the step will not solve the problem.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
How not to be mistaken with the calculation of the optimal step for the arrangement of the contour with the lowest cost:
How is the laying of the contour of warm floors, the main methods, their disadvantages and advantages:
Difficulties you may encounter when choosing pipes for a warm water floor:
The operational life of the water heating circuit is about 50 years. However, such high rates are possible only if you follow all the rules when laying them. Also, do not forget that the correct choice of the optimal step will help to significantly save on the purchase of materials, as well as reduce heating costs during operation.