Jewish Easter in 2019
The short season of strong winds and cooling in Eastern Europe, which precedes the Holy Week, is usually called Heaps or Hummocks. This habit has nothing to do with the weather, although it does spoil in a specified period. Exactly during the week before the Resurrection of Christ, the sons of Abraham begin to celebrate Passover and celebrate the first Seder. Why does the number of Jewish Passover not coincide with the Orthodox? What is the date, when and how to celebrate it in 2019 in Russia? To dot the whole story is taken!
Why not Easter, but Pesach?
The most ancient triumph of the Jews has nothing to do with the Christian tradition. It is much older and dedicated to the exodus from Egypt, which marked the deliverance from centuries of slavery. Just in Russia, Passover has long been called the Jewish Easter, emphasizing the significance of both holidays for followers of two different religions.
According to the Old Testament legend, the children of Israel have repeatedly tried to free themselves from the four hundred years of captivity, but in vain.One day Moses took the last desperate attempt to convince Pharaoh to show mercy, but he was adamant. Then the righteous man offered prayers to the Lord, and 10 plagues, known as the Egyptian executions, struck the land of the pyramids. Here are just a few of them:
- the punishment of blood and flies;
- pestilence, hail of fire, disease, darkness;
- invasion of toads, locust and blood-sucking insects
The stubbornness of a cruel ruler, unnoticed by the sufferings of his subjects, provoked the most terrible punishment - the death of all the firstborn in the state. Kara did not grasp only the chosen people by God, whom the Almighty had already commanded beforehand to slaughter the lambs and smear the doors of the dwellings with their blood. They not only escaped the evil fate, but also received the long-awaited deliverance from bondage and the day when Passover was celebrated. The name of the holiday means "to pass."
What is the number of Exodus in 2019?
The date of the Freedom Holiday is floating - the 14th day of the Nissan on the solar-lunar calendar. Each month it includes 28 days. To determine the number of Jewish Passover, data are compared with the Gregorian version. Ordinary believers do not do this, focusing on information from synagogues and secular news.
To find out what the number of Jewish Easter in 2019, you just need to look at the Internet.It is spring in the courtyard, which means very soon the turn of the first Seder - the traditional evening feast, which falls on Friday April 19 and opens Pesach. The holiday of Freedom lasts 7-8 days depending on the place of residence, therefore only 27 numbers will end on Saturday. When celebrate Exodus it is forbidden to work. The schedule for 2019 looks like this: Day 1 and Day 7 are the official holidays. In the remaining current work is allowed.
Ancient rituals and obligatory rites
The sons of Adam honor the covenants of the Torah and strictly adhere to the rules. It is impossible to work on Pesach, therefore it is necessary to bring ideal order in the house ahead of time, and also:
- destroy chametz (forbidden kvass products);
- clean the dishes thoroughly or purchase a new Seder kit;
- conduct a ritual of searching for flour and alcohol (performed by the owner);
- cook matzo (unleavened bread - a reminder of the disasters in Egypt)
When the Orthodox living in Russia notice that the Jewish handfuls of 2019 have arrived, it's time to inquire if the hour for the traditional meal in honor of the Freedom Holiday has come. Observation will help to congratulate friends of the Jews on time. The Jewish Passover concludes with a ceremony called the "Separation of Sea Water". The rabbis and believers gather near the reservoirs to recall the chapters of the Torah, dedicated to Pesach.
"Order" for the whole family
On the first day of the holiday, when all the households visited the synagogue and offered prayers, and the sun set the course for the horizon, the solemn feast began - Seder Pesakh, served according to certain rules:
- three matzahs (as a gift to the prophet Elijah);
- a lot of wine and candles;
- three tanks with salted water (tears of Jewish mothers)
In addition to ceremonial dishes, women cook lamb on the bone, boiled eggs and carp (type of vegetables). These dishes are located in the center so that each family member can observe all the stages of the ancient ritual - the first Seder, which means “order”:
- eat matzo;
- drink 4 cups of wine (children are offered juice);
- taste maror (bitter greens);
- read Haggadah and Psalms
Traditionally, there are other dishes on the table - everything that the hostess is ready to surprise. Approximately, as in Russia, on New Year's Eve and Easter, they boast of “branded” treats. The main thing is not to forget that Pesach in 2019 is not just a feast on a large scale, but an important date that the Jews celebrate with the whole family in order to honor the memory of their ancestors and express sorrow about the difficulties that have befallen them on the road to freedom.
How is the first Seder?
|KADESH||Kiddush saying over wine||The seder begins with the utterance of the kiddush, the consecration of the holiday. At the end of the kiddush, everyone drinks the first of the four mandatory glasses of wine, leaning on the left side. To fulfill the commandment, you need to drink at least a little more than half of the glass. It is preferable, however, to drink the entire glass.|
|URHATS||Hand washing ritual||On the night of Seder, they wash their hands the same way as they do before a normal meal with bread, but they do not pronounce the blessing "al netilat yadaim". (Therefore, after washing the hands and before the Karpas is eaten, it is allowed to speak.)|
|KARPAS||Variety of vegetables||They take a small piece of Karpas, dip it in salt water and pronounce the blessing "... boron at a-adam" (the text of the Haggadah), meaning also "maror", which will be eaten later in the Seder process.|
|YHAC||Refraction of the middle matzo||The lead Seder cracks the middle matzo and hides most of it for later use as an afikoman. A smaller part of the broken matzo remains between the upper and lower matzo.|
|MAGID||Reading the Agada||The story of the Exodus. It is necessary to read the original in Hebrew and then translate and explain the read text in the native language of the audience.Many follow the tradition of reading the text together, followed by individual translations and comments. Before the traditional four questions of Ma Nishtan, a second glass is poured. The books of the Haggadah explain in detail when to raise a glass of wine, when and how to pour wine drop by drop, etc.|
|PACKAGE||Ritual washing of hands||Before you eat matzo, for which there are the same laws as for bread, you must wash your hands and say the blessing "... al netilat yadaim" (in the text of the Haggadah). After the blessing, you cannot speak until the matzo is eaten.|
|MOTSIATS||Blessing on matzo||The leading Seder takes all the three matzas in front of him and reads the blessing "... amoci" (in the text of the Haggadah). Then he lets go of the lower matzoh, continuing to hold the whole upper and part of the middle broken matzo, and says the blessing "... al ahilat matzo" (see Agadu). Then he breaks the whole upper matzoh into small pieces and distributes them to all those present. To eat the required amount, you need to add an extra matzo to this piece.|
|MAROR||Bitter greens||The lead Seder takes the maror from the dish. Behind him, everyone takes pre-cooked maror, dunks it into a “charset”. The presenter pronounces the blessing "... al ahilat maror" (see Haggadah). Maror eat too in an oblique pose.|
|Koreh||Matzos and Marors Hillel Sandwich||The lead Seder takes the lower matzo, breaks off two pieces of it and puts in between the maror (bitter green), which lies at the bottom of the Seder dish; then dunks the “sandwich” into the hareset and pronounces the appropriate blessing (see Agadu). All the Seder participants do the same: they take two pieces of matzoh, put maror between them, dip them in a haroset, say a blessing and eat a “sandwich”. The minimum amount of matzah and marora for the “core” is the same as before. Hillel's Sandwich is also eaten leaning over.|
|SHULHAN-NUT||Festive meal||During the meal, it is allowed to drink additional wine in addition to the four mandatory glasses.|
|TSAFUN||The search for an aficultant||After the meal, take out the hidden "Afikoman." Most often, "Afikoman" instruct children to look for and take it from them in exchange for some gift. Each takes a piece of "afikomana" and another matzo and eats leaning. Mandatory minimum number - 3/4 square sheet. In the first Seder "afikomen" should be eaten before midnight. After the "afikomena" nothing can be eaten.|
|BAREH||Prayer after eating||They fill the third of four glasses and read a prayer together after the meal. Then drink the third glass, as before, leaning.|
|Gallel||Cup in honor of the Prophet Eliyahu||Wine is poured into a specially prepared cup. Fill the glasses (this is the fourth mandatory glass), open the front door for the Prophet Eliyahu and recite the Gallel prayer of thanks, after which they drink the leaning fourth glass. Then all those present together sing beautiful songs from the Passover Haggadah.|
|Sirz||Ministry taken||Having completed the Seder in strict accordance with the tradition, the Jews express conviction and faith that the Almighty accepted their prayers and that next year they will celebrate their liberation in rebuilt Jerusalem.|