How to make heating on waste oil with your own hands: schemes and principles of arrangement
Any material that, for an ordinary person, is just rubbish, from which it is necessary to get rid of, in the hands of a master can bring tangible material benefits.
For example, scraps of pipes of different sizes, old gas cylinders and other metal waste will be turned into a furnace, and waste oil - into fuel. It’s not so difficult to arrange heating with waste oil by your own hands.
General principle of operation
If we want to get high-quality heating on the basis of mining, the oil cannot simply be taken and set on fire, because it will smoke and stink. In order not to experience these unpleasant and health-threatening side effects, you need to heat the fuel so that it begins to evaporate.
The volatiles produced by heating will burn.This is the main principle of operation of the heating unit for testing.
Perforated tube application
To implement this principle in the design of the stove, two chambers are provided, which interconnect the pipe with the holes. In the lower chamber through the filler hole enters the fuel, which is also heated here. The volatile substances that form in this way rise upward through the pipe, saturating through perforation with oxygen in the air.
The resulting combustible mixture is ignited already in the pipe, and its complete combustion takes place in the upper afterburning chamber, separated from the chimney by a special partition. If the process technology is observed in due measure, there is practically no soot and smoke during combustion. But the heat will be enough to heat the room.
Use of the plasma bowl
In order to achieve maximum efficiency of the process, it is possible to go in a more complicated way. Recall that our goal is to release volatile constituents from the fuel by heating it. To do this, in a single chamber of the unit should be placed a bowl made of metal, which should not just be heated, but heated.
Through a special dispenser from the fuel tank into the chamber a thin stream or drops will come working. When it hits the surface of the bowl, the liquid will instantly evaporate, and the gas that forms will burn.
If everything is done correctly, the combustion of gases must be accompanied by a bluish-white flame. A similar flame can be observed when plasma is burning, so a hot cup is often called a plasma one. And the technology itself is referred to as drip feed: after all, the fuel with it should come in extremely small doses.
With all the variety of designs, the work of all heating units on the junk fuel is based on the principle described above.
Advantages and disadvantages
It would seem that the idea is almost devoid of flaws, but it is not. To make an informed decision about the use of such heating in your home, you need to see not only the advantages of its use, but also the disadvantages.
Let's start with the merits of the method. So, if you have regular access to junk fuel, which is essentially mining, then you can efficiently use and simultaneously dispose of this material. Proper use of technology allows you to get warm with the complete combustion of the material without releasing harmful substances into the atmosphere.
Other advantages include:
- simple design of the heating unit;
- low fuel and equipment costs;
- the possibility of using any oil that is on the farm: vegetable, organic, synthetic;
- combustible material can be used even if contamination is one tenth of its volume;
- high efficiency.
The disadvantages of the method should be taken seriously. If you do not comply with the process technology, incomplete combustion may occur. His couples are dangerous to others.
Not for nothing that the main requirement in the arrangement of heating to work out is the presence of ventilation in the room where the boiler will be operated.
Here are the other cons:
- since a good chimney is needed for good traction, it must be straight, and its length - from five meters;
- the chimney and plasma bowl must be cleaned regularly and thoroughly;
- the complexity of the drip technology lies in the problem ignition: at the time of the fuel supply, the bowl should already be red-hot;
- boiler operation causes air drying and oxygen burnout;
- Independent creation and use of water-heating structures can contribute to a decrease in temperature in the combustion zone, which jeopardizes the efficiency of the process as a whole.
To solve the last of the above problems, you can mount the water jacket where it can not affect the quality of combustion - on the chimney.
These deficiencies have led to the fact that the product without significant modifications is practically not used for heating residential premises.
Where to apply and how to modify
Due to the substantial list of deficiencies, oil-waste heaters are rarely used in housing. But they are widely used for heating technical and industrial areas. Motorists use them in garages, gardeners in greenhouses, livestock breeders in household buildings. In car washes, in the service station, in warehouses where there are no combustible materials, they will always find a place.
Often the basic design undergoes various modifications. For example, for these purposes, use a water jacket or water coils. Such equipment is included in the composition of water heating. Furnaces of this type must operate with the use of automation, otherwise their operation will have to be monitored vigilantly.
A few successful homemade products
Using the basic principle of design, you can always come up with a product that will best meet your own needs. We will try to offer you some options that deserve not only attention, but also embodiments.
Option # 1 - with a finished housing
This design may appeal to such a home craftsman who has already mastered the skills of welding. Its essence lies in the use as the body of the product of the finished base - an oxygen or gas cylinder, a pipe or a barrel with thick walls.
In order to visualize the process of turning the blanks into a furnace for working, carefully consider the diagram below.
The product uses a plasma thicket and, therefore, technology drip feed. It is capable of producing approximately 15 KW of heat, which will heat up to 150 m2 of space. You should not try to upgrade this model, aiming to increase its performance by increasing the air flow or changing the size of the combustion chamber. This can lead to an increase in the amount of soot and fumes, which is not safe.
First we need to build the basis of the model - its body. For this we need a pipe with a height of 780 mm, a diameter of 210 mm and with thick walls (at least 10 mm).Cut the bottom of the body of steel sheet (at least 5 mm). The diameter of the bottom circle is 219 mm. It remains only to weld the bottom to one side of the body.
The legs that you have to weld to the bottom can be made from durable bolts. To monitor the combustion process inside the pipe and be able to start heating the bowl, you need to make a viewing window 70 mm from the bottom level. To do this, in the case, cut a hole in such a size that it is functional - convenient for the user.
The cut part of the pipe will go to the manufacture of the door opening. It is only necessary to weld a neat shoulder to it and lay an asbestos cord around its perimeter so that the door tightly closes the opening. We fasten the door on the body with bolts.
For the chimney you will need a pipe with a diameter of 108 mm with thick walls (4 mm). It should be welded to the body on the side opposite to the one where the viewing window is cut. From the top, retreat 7-10 cm.
To make the cover, a round billet with a diameter of 228 mm is cut out of sheet metal (thickness 5 mm). On the edge of the workpiece should be welded flange. This requires a metal strip with a thickness of 3 mm and a width of 40 mm. In the resulting lid on the side we make another viewing hole with a diameter of 18 mm.Its door will play the role of a safety valve.
In the center of the lid, cut another hole with a diameter of 89 mm. An air supply pipe will be inserted into it, which we make from a billet 76 cm long, 89 mm in diameter, and 3 mm thick.
Perforate the blank. To do this, retreat from the edge of 5 cm and drill 9 holes in a circle with a diameter of 5 mm. After 5 cm you need to make two more rows of holes - 8 in a row, diameter 4.2 mm. After another 5 cm make the fourth row of holes - 9 pieces, diameter 3 mm.
For the next work we need a Bulgarian. Along the edge of the pipe, from which we retreated 5 cm, we cut a gap 3 cm high, 1.6 mm thick. On the circumference of such cracks should be 9 pieces.
From the opposite end of the pipe, 5-7 mm from the edge, we cut a hole 10 mm in diameter. A pipe for fuel supply with a diameter of 10 mm and walls 1 mm thick will be inserted into it. As can be seen from the diagram, it enters the air tube and ends at the same time as it. The length of this fuel line and its bend angle depend on the location of the oil tank.
The fuel and air pipe assembly is welded to the cap. When installed in the case of the product, it should not rest against the bottom, and not reach it 12 cm.
We proceed to the manufacture of the plasma bowl.To do this, you need a thick-walled pipe (thickness 4 mm) with a diameter of 133 mm. Cut a piece of 3 cm from it. Cut a round billet with a diameter of 219 mm from a steel sheet 2 mm thick. Weld the workpiece to the segment and get the bowl.
Actually, the stove is almost ready. It remains to collect it. To do this, inside the body in 7 cm from the bottom place the bowl. Now it should be clearly visible from the viewing window located below. From the window bowl and set on fire. We put on the place provided for it with a device for supplying air and oil.
The chimney, which will be attached to the corresponding nozzle, is made of a pipe 4 mm thick and 114 mm in diameter. The length of the chimney should be at least 4 meters. A feature of it can only be considered a vertical location. No sloping areas should be! The outer part of the chimney should be warmed.
When the oil tank is installed, you can check the operation of the unit. To do this, put a paper dipped in fuel in a bowl, and then set it on fire.At the final stage of burning paper, you can begin to submit testing.
The circuit of this device is not for nothing given in the same way. We want you to get a high-quality device that will long please its creator with trouble-free and safe work.
Option # 2 - the most popular
This model is really popular with the owners of villas and garages. Make it easy. It consists of two compartments (chambers). At the bottom is poured fuel, which will be heated to form volatile gases. When they pass through a perforated pipe located between the compartments, the gases are saturated with oxygen and ignited.
When burning a mixture of gases in the upper compartment, the temperature can reach 800 degrees. Such heating requires an active air supply. For this purpose, a viewing hole is provided in the lower compartment, through which, in addition, fuel is poured. In order to adjust the air supply with it, a damper is necessary.
When gases pass from the lower part of the structure to the upper one, the mixture is saturated with oxygen through small holes (diameter 10 mm) in the pipe.
To perform the work should be prepared:
- grinder with cutting and stripping discs; The minimum disc diameter is 125 mm.
- perforator with a drill not less than 13 mm;
- welding machine (200 amps) and a protective mask or goggles;
- sledge hammer;
- hammer, chisel and pliers;
- leg corner;
- sheet steel;
The lower compartment is cut out of the sheet iron and boiled. In it cut out a viewing window through which fuel and air will come inside. The valve for this hole is fixed on the body of the compartment with a rivet.
A perforated connecting gas pipeline-pipe is welded to the lower chamber, to which the upper compartment with a removable cover is attached by welding. It is also cut out of sheet steel and welded. During the welding process, the joints should be carefully checked for gaps.
To give the structure a better stability, metal corners are used. The chimney should be attached to the pipe strictly vertically.
You can check the operation of the boiler by pouring oil into the lower compartment. They set it on fire using plain paper for this purpose.
The process of a similar, but slightly modified stove can be viewed on the video in the final part of this article.
Option # 3 - small but remote
For large rooms need productive stoves from the previous versions. But there are also baby aggregates that can do a lot too. Here such homemade weighs only 10 kg. With a consumption of 0.5 liters of fuel per hour, it is capable of producing up to 6 kW of heat. You can crack it even harder, but you shouldn’t do it for safety reasons: it will explode. A great option for garage heating.
If you have an old gas cylinder, then it can become the fuel tank for this homemade product. Capacity for oil is collected from the top and bottom of this cylinder.It is recommended to maintain a circular seam with a sealing ring, which will further increase the strength of the product.
If there is no gas bottle, then any other container with a height of 350 mm and a diameter of 200 to 400 mm will do. From it the fuel tank will be welded.
To create an air-fuel mixture, we use a pipe whose walls are at least 4 mm thick. The cone can be welded from strong steel, with a thickness of 4 mm. The diagram shows all the dimensions of the structure. They can be corrected both in the smaller and in the larger direction, but not more than by 2 cm.
Particular attention should be paid to the seams at the points of transition to the cones: it is here that, due to the active combustion of the gas mixture, maximum heating can occur.
The chimney for this stove is made with a length of no more than 3.5 meters so that when creating too active traction, the fuel is not drawn into the chimney. Such stretching can not only increase fuel consumption, but also reduce its heat transfer.
This homemade product can be used in hot water heating. To do this, as shown in the right figure of the scheme, a steel tube is wound around the afterburning zone of the fuel, through which water will flow. To prevent a significant decrease in the temperature of the gases, the coil is closed with a steel case reflecting heat. The water heated in this way goes into the heating system.
Compliance with safety regulations
For the safe operation of self-made heating, it is necessary to pay special attention to the quality of the oil when working. It should not contain substances that can easily ignite - gasoline, acetone and others. The quality of automobile waste, as a rule, leaves much to be desired. When using them, carbon deposits can be formed, which will have to be cleaned from time to time.
In addition, the following safety precautions should be observed.
- The diameter of the chimney should not be less than 10 cm.Preferably sandwich chimney: less soot is deposited on its surface.
- Combustible substances, including the fuel tank, cannot be near the boiler. Only at a safe distance.
- Prevent water or other liquid from entering the chamber with hot oil. The consequences of such a leak are presented in the video in the final part of this article.
- During the operation of the waste oil boiler, the heating temperatures are much higher than those achieved during the combustion of solid fuels. Therefore, for this design and choose thick-walled materials.
- It is advisable to equip the boiler system with forced air circulation.
Do not leave the unit running unattended. This is an effective, but rather dangerous thing.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Craftsmen do not make secrets from their own work and are always ready to share their achievements, show home-made works. Pay attention to the video, which presents the same oven as in option # 2, but with some modifications. See how it works, what is the result of its use in conditions of external frost for heating a rather spacious garage room.
Once again we draw your attention to the safety technique that should be followed when using self-made stoves to work out.
The waste fuel that you can get, if not completely free, then for mere pennies, always attracts the attention of owners of garage workshops, greenhouses or other non-residential premises that require heating. Yes, talented people can literally make waste a necessary thing in the household. But the skill does not come from the outside: it is acquired. Perhaps our information will help not only those who already know how, but also those who want to learn how to do everything with their own hands.