How to decipher a blood test?
A general or clinical blood test (KLA) isone of the most common tests, which doctors prescribe at the first stage of diagnosis of many diseases. Blood for OAK is taken from the finger or from the vein.
Correctly to decipher the analysis of a blood the doctor can only, but each of us it is useful to understand, about what this or that indicator speaks.
With the help of UAC determine such parameters as
- the content of hemoglobin,
- number of erythrocytes,
- leukocyte formula,
- sedimentation rate of erythrocytes (ESR).
Hemoglobin is an iron-containing protein thatis contained in erythrocytes and is responsible for the transfer of oxygen. For men, the concentration of hemoglobin is 130-160 g / l, and for women - 120-140 g / l is the norm. Reducing the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood is called anemia. It can occur with a deficiency in the diet components that go to the synthesis of hemoglobin (vitamin B12, folic acid, iron), blood loss, bone marrow diseases, destruction of red blood cells by poisons, drugs or parasites. Elevated hemoglobin is most commonly seen with an increase in blood viscosity.
The hematocrit precisely characterizes the viscosityblood, because it is the ratio of the volume of erythrocytes to the total volume of blood. For men, it should be in the range of 42-52%, and for women - 36-48%. If this indicator is lower - you can talk about anemia, if higher - dehydration of the body or erythrocytosis - an increase in the number of red blood cells.
ESR is one of the indicators of the presence of inflammatory processes in the body. At a rate of 1-15 mm / h, it increases significantly in all diseases associated with inflammation.
Erythrocytes (red blood cells) perform inbody various transport functions. The most important of these is the transfer of oxygen. In a healthy person, the erythrocyte content in the blood is 3.7-5.1x1012/ l. Since hemoglobin and erythrocytes are related structurally, the causes that cause a decrease in the total number of erythrocytes (erythropenia) are the same as for hemoglobin. An increase in the number of red blood cells is observed with certain hereditary diseases and oxygen deficiency in the body. The latter can be associated with heart and lung diseases.
White blood cells (white blood cells) are a group of cells performing various protective functions. Blood content 4-9x109/ L leukocytes is the norm. A slight increase in leukocytes (leukocytosis) can be observed in a healthy person after eating, heavy physical work, and in women - during pregnancy. Pathological lymphocytosis indicates an inflammatory process, much less often - on oncology. Some infectious diseases occur with a decrease in the number of leukocytes (leukopenia), which is typical for influenza, rubella, brucellosis, typhoid, measles.
The leukocyte formula shows the percentage ratio between different types of leukocytes. This formula consists of:
Three of them - neutrophils, basophils,eosinophils - there are specific granules, they are therefore called granulocytes. Monocytes and lymphocytes of such granules do not contain, for which they were called agranulocytes.
Neutrophils protect the body from bacteria byphagocytosis. Young neutrophils are called stabnuclear, and mature neutrophils are segmented. The average content of neutrophils in the blood should not exceed 1-6% of stabnuclear and 47-72% of segmented nuclei. The percentage of neutrophils increases with various inflammatory processes. Acute inflammation causes a sharp increase in the number of stab neutrophils, and chronic - segmented. Insufficiency of choline and folic acid, bone marrow diseases can lead to a decrease in the number of neutrophils.
Basophils take part in various immunereactions. Their content in the blood of a healthy person is in the range of 0-1%. Basophilia (an increase in the number of basophils) is an indicator of allergic reactions, acute leukemia, chronic inflammatory problems with the stomach or intestines. Reduction is observed during pregnancy, stress, hypothyroidism.
Eosinophils play an important role in the development ofallergic reactions. Also, when infected with helminths, these cells can penetrate into the lumen of the intestine and release toxic substances for these parasites. Therefore, their increase (at a rate of 0-5%) almost always indicates various allergic diseases or helminthiases.
Lymphocytes serve as a specificimmunity - i.e. immunity, aimed at combating clearly defined types of viruses, bacteria. In this case, T-lymphocytes are engaged in cellular immunity - protective functions are performed by the cells themselves, and B-lymphocytes - by humoral immunity - the protective functions are performed by antibodies that secrete B-lymphocytes. Normal content of 18-40% of leukocytes in the blood is considered. With rubella, influenza, SARS, tuberculosis, as well as hyperthyroidism, the number of lymphocytes (lymphocytosis) is increasing. Reduction of lymphocytes (lymphopenia) is typical for AIDS and some other diseases.
Monocytes in the body play the role of nurses,absorbing bacteria, cell debris, etc. Their content in the blood in the norm is insignificant - 2-9%. Their percentage increases with tuberculosis, viral and fungal diseases. Reduction is diagnosed with exhaustion of the body, long-term admission of glucocorticoids.
Platelets are cells that participate in the formation of a thrombus. Their physiological content is 180-400x109/ l. Increases the number of platelets after surgery and removal of the spleen, with malignant diseases, chronic inflammatory processes. A decrease in the number of platelets is normal during pregnancy and menstruation, bone marrow damage, and many viral diseases.
After reading this information, it will be easier for you to understand how to decipher an overall blood test.