First aid for burns: rendering first aid for thermal, chemical, acid and sunburns, depending on their degree with a list of the best medicinal and folk remedies
How to provide first aid in any situation, everyone must know. Such skills are necessary in order to alleviate the general condition of the victim, and in some cases save his life until the arrival of an ambulance. Burns are no less dangerous for general health than poisoning or bleeding. After all, the skin suffers from a burn, through which many different processes that are vital for the body occur.
The main thing in the article
First aid for burns
Sources of burns can be:
- chemical (more common in production),
- thermal (in everyday life),
By their severity, burns are divided into degrees:
- I degree - slight redness and burning;
- Grade II - the appearance of watery bubbles;
- Grade III - clearly visible wounds;
- IV degree - in addition to the skin, internal tissues are injured - this degree of burn is fatal in 75% of cases.
The task of rendering first aid is to keep the person in a stable condition until the arrival of the doctors. To do this, it is imperative to remove the source of injury from the victim:
- if clothes are burning, extinguish them by covering the person with a thick cloth, dipping into water or sprinkling with sand;
- if the burn is from an object, put it away and turn it off.
Important! If a person was on fire and his clothes stuck to his body, then he should not be ripped off. It is possible to remove tissue from the body only in those places where it easily departs without your efforts.
What does first aid for burns include?
- Protect the injured person from the cause of the injury as a burn.
- Free the burn from any physical particles.
- Cool the burned area of the body.For minor injuries (grade 1 and 2), injured skin should be doused with cold water (preferably under a tap), but literally for 10–15 minutes. For severe burns (grade 3–4), a wet, cold cloth can be put on the damaged part of the body. In this way, you will ease the pain of the victim and prevent damage to the deeper layers of the covering.
Use the ice - you can not. Freezing the burned areas will alleviate the pain faster, but will cause irreparable damage to the damaged skin.
- Protect the burn site from contact with the environment - with a gauze bandage. It may be dry, but the use of antiseptics is not prohibited. So you prevent infection in the wound.
- To remove the pain, you can give the victim any anesthetic drug, both in pills and injections (if you know how to give an injection to a person and in what dose).
- Transport the victim. Call an ambulance and transfer the person to the doctors or, if it is not possible to call for help, take the injured person to the hospital. During transport, the affected part of the body should be kept as close as possible to physical contact as much as possible.
First aid for thermal burns
A person can get thermal burns under the influence of vapors, spilling boiling water or touching hot objects, such as an iron. For the provision of first emergency aid fit the standard list of actions given above. But there are some nuances that need to be taken into account.
- Burns of 3 and 4 degrees should not be placed under running cold water.
- If you bandage, it should not be tight.
- For anesthesia, you can use Novocain 0.5%, sprinkling a burn on it.
- In order not to damage the skin even more, it is better not to take off the clothes, as usual, but to cut and remove them in parts.
- The victim should be given to drink plain water, because at this moment his body loses a large amount of fluid.
- Do not touch damaged areas with your hands.
- Do not use cotton wool and patches for dressing.
- It is prohibited to treat burns with various ointments, alcohol, peroxide or creams. They form an additional film over the damaged area of the skin, sealing it. Therefore, heat is stored inside, which leads to further growth of the burn.
- In case of damage with the appearance of bubbles, they can not be pierced or incised.Such manipulations can only be done by doctors after a burn has been evaluated.
- It is possible to use special foam only at the first degree of a burn (reddening).
How to give first aid for burn boiling water?
Boiled water burn refers to thermal damage. This injury is most common in everyday life, but the worst thing is that children suffer in 50% of cases. Therefore, it is very important for parents to know how to help a child or their loved one.
- Assess the degree of burn.
- Cool the damaged area depending on the degree of burn.
- Give the sufferer a pain medication.
- Estimate the volume of the affected area.
- If more than 10% of the skin is damaged, immediately hospitalize the person. It is also not recommended to treat self burns above grade 2.
For first-degree burns, it is recommended to use preparations containing dexpanthenol, a prominent representative of which is Panthenol (foam spray). This drug should be in the first-aid kit of each family.
Chemical burn and first aid measures
This kind of burns are most often received by people who do not comply with safety rules when working with chemicals, or children who do not know what they have taken.Therefore, it is better to keep all hazardous mixtures and liquids away from children and to follow all the recommendations for the use of this substance.
First aid for chemical burns
- Take off all things and objects on which the substance fell.
- Wash away spilled liquid from skin.
Wash the substance with wipes can not be, so you only contribute to its penetration deep into the skin. The only exception is aluminum, it is impossible to wash the affected area with water, as ignition may occur as a result of this compound.
- If after washing the victim still feels burning, you need to wash the wound again.
- Neutralization of a hazardous substance.
Acid. To neutralize it, you need to use soda, or rather soda solution (for 250 ml of water - 0.5 hl of soda).
Alkali.To neutralize it, use vinegar (a weak solution). If there is no vinegar at home, citric acid or juice will go.
Lime.In this case, you need to take a sugar solution - for 250 ml of water - 5 g of sugar.
Further actions are the same as for thermal burns - cold (wet tissue), anesthesia and dressing. For serious injuries - hospitalization.
Acid Burns and First Aid
If the acid gets on the skin in a small amount, you need to wash the place, neutralize the acid (soda solution or milk), apply a bandage and, if necessary, visit a doctor.
But what to do if acid got into eyes? This is not an ordinary skin area, what to do in this case?
- Rinse the eyes of the victim, right up to the forced opening of the eyelids. This should be done for at least 15 minutes.
- In parallel, call an ambulance.
- To neutralize it is better to use milk - cool, if there is no milk at home - take soda solution (water should be cool, but not ice).
- After neutralization, bandage and hospitalize the person.
How to help with sunburn?
Sunburn received by all who rested on the sea. You lie to yourself sunbathe, nothing bakes, does not disturb. But after a couple of hours to the body is impossible to touch.
To prevent such situations, it is better to use sunscreen or control the time spent in the sun.
- Protect the body from sunlight on it - go into the shade.
- Swim in the cool water (shower).
- Blot the body (do not wipe).
- If blisters appear - consult a doctor, you will be prescribed anti-inflammatory drugs and painkillers.
- Drink plenty of water.
- Use dexpanthenol based sprays.
- Avoid direct sunlight until the pain, itching and burning disappear.
First aid depending on the degree of burns
- The first degree - can be placed under the faucet and open cold water, apply a special foam.
- The second - can be placed in a container with cold water, you can not burst the blisters, scratching, touch with your hands.
- Third - you can put a wet cloth, you can not put in water, hospitalization is required.
- Fourth, cover the damaged area with a cold bandage, give a medicine of anesthetic action, and take the person to the hospital.
Brief instructions for first aid for burns
- Remove the cause of the burn.
- Cool the burned place.
- Give the anesthetic drug and water to drink.
- Treat with foam (if possible), apply a gauze bandage.
- If necessary, hospitalize a person.
What not to do with a burn?
- Break the rules of first aid.
- Wash the burn with warm and hot water.
- Touch the burn.
- Fill the burn with alcohol, peroxide, lubricate with ointment / cream.
- Tear off clothes from the burned area of skin.
- Apply a tight bandage and use cotton wool or a plaster.
List of the most effective ointments for burn first aid
The use of ointments should be prescribed by a doctor, since not in all cases they can be applied immediately. The most effective ointment in the treatment of burns:
- Bepanten plus
Sprays and Spray Burns
Sprays and aerosols can be used in all cases when providing first aid for I degree burns. In other situations, it is better to leave the use of medicines to doctors.
Top 5 Effective Sprays and Burn Sprays
First-aid anti-burn bandages
- The anti-burn bandage should completely cover the affected skin area, be free.
- When applying a burn bandage, cotton wool cannot be used, be it dry or wetted with an antiseptic. In any case, it will stick and its extraction will take a lot of time and harm the person.
- To close the wound directly - fold a bandage or gauze in 5-6 layers.If desired, it can be moistened in any antiseptic.
- Next - bandage is not too tight.
Folk remedies for first aid for various types of burns
- Raw vegetables. Potatoes or carrots, cut in half, can help with burns from boiling water of 1 degree. Applying vegetables should be for 5-10 minutes, constantly replacing halves of vegetables with new ones until a burning sensation disappears.
- Cottage cheese.It is more often used at burns from the boiling oil in the form of bandages. Put curd gruel on the affected area (knead well) and fix with a bandage. The dressing should be changed twice a day and done until the victim feels relieved.
- Soda.After washing the burn with cold water, pour a thick layer of soda on the burned area and keep it as long as possible.
- Aloe. The cut sheet of this plant is applied to the burn with the soft side and fixed with a bandage.
- Cabbage.The cooled and washed cabbage leaf should be put on top of the burn and fix with a bandage, change as the leaf is heated.
- Pumpkin.Pumpkin pulp also relieves pain from burns and has a healing effect on damaged tissue. You can cut off the plate of pulp, but it is better to make a mush with a grater.
- Yolk + 1 hl of honey. Raw yolk needs to be whipped, boiled - rub and mix with honey. Use the tool is not in the first minutes after injury, but for subsequent treatment.
- Charcoal. A piece of coal is applied to damaged skin. It can only be used for I degree burns and if you are 100% sure that there is no dirt in the coal.
- Sea buckthorn oilused in the treatment of burns, it accelerates the healing process of wounds and promotes skin regeneration.
- Boiled onion + flax oil.Grind onion in a blender and mix with flax oil, put gruel on the wound and bandage. Effectively this means for burns of 1 and 2 degrees, change the bandage 3 times a day.