Exhaust ventilation through the wall to the street: installing a valve through a hole in the wall
Most of the new materials and finished structures, introduced in the sphere of construction and finishing, almost completely exclude the free movement of air. The tightness provided by them along with the pluses brought a weighty minus - a violation of ventilation processes. They just need to be restored, because, you see, it is impossible to live in it without regular supply of fresh air to the room!
We know how to solve such a difficult problem: exhaust ventilation through the wall to the street will form the normal movement of air masses. A small wall unit will ensure the removal of the waste stream and excellent air exchange.
Our proposed article will introduce the subtleties of choosing a valve for organizing exhaust ventilation, with the rules of its installation and operation.The information submitted for consideration is confirmed by photo materials, schemes and video instructions.
Typical ventilation problems
Natural ventilation of residential premises is based on the presence of micro gaps characteristic of wooden window constructions. Through such small openings, air regularly entered from outside and was removed from the house through ventilation ducts arranged in building structures.
So in the apartment was carried out a constant change of air masses, contributing to the normal level of humidity, removal of unpleasant odors, etc.
Improper ventilation in the house - the problem is almost inevitable when carrying out measures to reduce heat loss. Installing new windows and doors, trying to minimize heat loss, few people think about ventilating their homes.
But soon the problems manifest themselves in the form of a stuffy atmosphere, mold multiplication in the bathroom and other similar phenomena. Soon the abnormal microclimate begins to negatively affect the health of those who live in such a house.
Air handling units of various types and types help to deal with excessive sealing of the premises, but for normal ventilation this may not be enough. The thrust of natural exhaust ventilation is often weak, if not absent. Due to problems with the device of ventilation structures, part of the air masses that must be removed from the house, penetrates back.
The condition of the outdoor temperature is reflected on the condition of the ventilation system of the house or apartment, or rather, the temperature difference inside and outside the room. In winter, this gap is quite large, which provides good traction.But in the summer period, the temperature difference between the outside and the inside air is not so significant, and this does not affect the quality of the traction too well.
For these reasons, you need to think about the need to install special exhaust valves. They will ensure quick and effective removal of exhaust air from the home, as well as prevent its re-entry.
Types of exhaust valves
The low efficiency of exhaust ventilation is most often due to various reasons, for example, a violation of the patency of the channels or their tightness. In multi-storey buildings, such situations often arise due to flaws during repairs, and it is not always possible to eliminate the consequences of mistakes and restore the normal state of ventilation ducts.
In this case, exhaust valves may be more than appropriate. The design of these devices is very simple, their main purpose is to let the air flow out and not allow them to penetrate back. According to the type of installation, these valves are divided into horizontal and vertical, it all depends on the direction of air flow.
If the exhaust flow should move vertically, choose a valve with a horizontal installation. And for venting air horizontally you need a vertical valve. Typically, exhaust valve models are equipped with a fan. They are used where the removal of air from the room should be forced.
Another important point - the noise level, which publishes a working device. The lower the sound effects from the flap of the flap and / or the rotating fan, the better. A lot of useful information can be found in the technical passport of the product.
The design of the wall device
A conventional exhaust valve consists of three main parts:
- decorative lattice.
The round flange is a connecting element that allows the valve to be connected to the ventilation duct. The grille is a decorative element that simply masks a hole in the wall and also prevents large debris from accidentally getting inside. The basis of the design - flap.
This is a movable petal, of circular or square configuration, fixed on the axis. It can only open in one direction, ensuring the correct movement of the air flow. The design may also include a plumb line, which allows the valve to remain in the closed state if the fan is off.
For industrial facilities, it is usually recommended to choose a valve with good explosion-proof characteristics, but for residential premises other features are important. For example, the presence of a rubber gasket that helps reduce the amount of noise would be helpful.
One of the common variants of the exhaust valve is a butterfly-type design.It consists of two blades fixed on the central axis. Another popular design of such devices is called petal, it includes a number of parallel-mounted blades that move according to the principle of blinds.
The installation of an axial fan for exhaust type ventilation is performed according to the same scheme for all systems:
Reasonable choice of a suitable option.
Most often, exhaust ventilation valves in the wall are made of metal or durable plastic. For conditions of high temperature and humidity, for example, for a bath, plastic products are not suitable, but they have proven themselves in less difficult situations. Selecting the valve, you should consider its cross section: rectangular or round.
The most important indicator is the air flow rate for which the device is designed. The most common are models designed for a flow of 4-6 m / s.
If the valve is selected for a natural ventilation system, it is very important that the valve flap elements react sensitively even to small air flows. But for systems with a weak burden, the presence of an exhaust fan is obligatory, therefore such sensitivity is not needed.
But here it is important to choose a fan that is suitable for power, depending on the volume of the room for which the device is selected. So, for the kitchen, the fan power is calculated using a multiplying factor of ten, and for a bathroom this figure can be seven units.
In multi-storey buildings, the exhaust ventilation pipe must be brought one meter above the roof so that unpleasant odors do not penetrate from the lower floors to the upper ones.
Subtleties of exhaust ventilation in the wall
In private houses and even in high-rise buildings, in many cases it is more convenient to make a vent exit right through the wall. For this purpose, models of exhaust valves with a fan are used, which are inserted into the mounting coupling intended for their location. You can also use overhead models of fans that are mounted on the inside of the wall.
To install such a simple structure, you need to make a sufficiently large hole for installing ventilation in the outer wall of the house. But first you need to select the appropriate device. Models with manual control have a reasonable price, but they are extremely inconvenient in operation, because you have to constantly remember to turn on or turn off the exhaust valve.
To automate the process, you can use a timer. You will need to select a time schedule, in accordance with these settings, the valve will turn on and off at a specified time.It may be more effective to use a sensor that responds to the level of humidity in the room.
In this case, the device will start to work when the air in the room becomes too humid, and if the humidity decreases, the fan will stop. When choosing automatic control devices, you should make sure that the settings that were previously set are retained when the power is turned off.
To ensure good ventilation in the room, you need to use a sufficiently powerful fan. A unit that is weak in this respect simply cannot cope with the movement of a large volume of air masses; as a result, ventilation will not be sufficiently effective.
When calculating, they usually use a simple formula:
M = O * B
- M - required fan power;
- O is the volume of the room in which the device will be installed;
- B - increasing air exchange coefficient.
Calculate the volume of the room, as is known from the school course of mathematics, as the product of the area and height of the room.The air exchange coefficient is determined depending on the purpose of the room. This indicator should be:
- for a separate toilet - 8;
- for the kitchen - 15;
- for a bathroom or combined bathroom - 20.
It remains only to determine the volume of the room and multiply it by the appropriate factor in order to get an indicator that will help you choose a valve with a sufficiently powerful fan. You should not take an overly powerful model, it will only cause unnecessary costs and will not have a positive effect on the ventilation process.
When calculating the power of the exhaust fan, it is necessary to take into account the sensitivity of such equipment to the resistance of the system. The presence of a decorative grille and a valve can reduce the speed of movement of the air flow by three to five or even ten times. Therefore you should not choose a device with a minimum size and power.
The fan capacity must be sufficient for exhaust air to flow out of adjacent rooms through the valve, and not only from the room in which the device is installed. Before starting work on the installation of an exhaust valve with a fan, it is necessary to choose a suitable place.
To do this, use a wall that is as far as possible from the place where the fresh air is taken. Usually, ventilation is installed in the walls or windows of rooms such as a bedroom or living room. For exhaust ventilation is more suitable kitchen or bathroom. As a result, unpleasant odors, excess water vapors and the like are also removed with the exhaust air.
Hole for exhaust valve to be done at the top of the wall. First perform the markup, then begin drilling. The hole of suitable size make drill and feather circular drill. Sometimes you have to use a special tool with a diamond nozzle.
The opening for the exhaust valve must match the size and configuration of the fan. This is usually a round device, but sometimes it is more convenient to use a device with a square case. In this case, the valve hole must be hollowed out using a perforator with a nozzle in the form of a blade.
Such works are usually accompanied by a large amount of dust, from which even the use of an industrial vacuum cleaner does not save. It is necessary to cover the surface with a film or other suitable materials before drilling to protect them from contamination.
For drilling extra thick outer walls of durable materials, you can use a core drilling machine. This is expensive equipment that is cheaper to rent than to buy. Specialized companies provide core drilling service at a relatively low price, which depends on the depth of drilling and the wall material.
During operation of this equipment uses water cooling. At the same time, a device is used to collect waste material and water, but a part of it will still fall on the wall, this point should be taken into account before starting work.After the hole is prepared and cleaned of dust, it is necessary to insert a coupling into it, it comes complete with a valve.
Now you need to note the mounting points of the fan. The device is fixed on the wall through the designated holes. Dowels-struts are most often used as fasteners. Usually there is a small gap between the coupling and the wall, through which air can later penetrate.
All such slots are gently blown with mounting foam, which will provide the necessary tightness to the structure. After that, you can start installing the exhaust valve. Care should be taken not to damage the valve itself during installation and to prevent construction debris from entering it.
After installation, you need to make sure that the flaps move freely, do not stick. After that, on the outer side of the wall of the house you need to install a decorative lattice that closes the hole and gives the design an aesthetic look. To improve the efficiency of the exhaust valve and reduce the likelihood of its freezing in the winter, it is recommended to lay a layer of insulating material around the coupling.
This point should be taken into account when calculating the diameter of the hole under the exhaust valve.Some masters consider the clutch, which is equipped with exhaust valve, not strong enough. They note that if necessary, the coupling may be accidentally damaged, and recommend replacing it with a segment of a more durable plastic pipe of the appropriate diameter.
If such a pipe turns out to be a little wider than the fan that is inserted into it, you can make a winding of electrical tape or other suitable material so that the device fits tightly enough. The inside of the fan should be powered. The cable is led to the electrical panel, when connected for safety reasons, they use fusible fuses.
When installing an exhaust valve in the toilet, the power supply can be connected in such a way that the fan switches on simultaneously with the lighting. In this case, the timer can be set to turn off after a certain period of time after the light is turned off.
In order for exhaust ventilation in the toilet and bathroom to work efficiently, it is necessary to ensure the flow of air into these rooms. Usually for this purpose special ventilation grilles are installed at the bottom of the door.
During operation, the exhaust valve should be dealt with such a problem as the occurrence of blockages. If debris enters the device, it may damage the valve and impede fan operation. If this happens, the device will have to be dismantled, decontaminated and installed again. Butterfly valves can be covered with a layer of ice in winter, which also leads to problems in the operation of the mechanism.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The process of installing the fan and the check valve through the wall is described in detail in this video:
It demonstrated the operation of a high-power exhaust fan with a check valve. The device is characterized by increased durability and low noise level during operation:
Exhaust ventilation is a necessary element for normal air exchange in the house. If it is installed correctly, then normal humidity and a microclimate favorable for people's health will be maintained in residential premises.