Electrical wiring in the kitchen with their own hands: wiring diagrams + features of the electrical work
In order for the electrical wiring in the kitchen to serve for a long time and withstand intense operational loads, it must be correctly designed and installed in full compliance with generally accepted rules.
Work is quite laborious and requires time, responsible attitude and a sensible approach. After all, under the hour it is in the kitchen that up to 50% of household appliances available in the apartment or house are located.
And for each device it is necessary to provide a convenient location and full power supply. Then all units will function in the right mode and will not deliver any difficulties to the owners.
Types of wiring: a review of the pros and cons
The wiring is carried out in two ways: open and hidden. Each option has its advantages and disadvantages.The choice of the most suitable depends on the material from which the building was erected, on the planned design and the presence or absence of massive decorative elements on the walls and ceiling.
Features create open wiring
Open electrical wiring is the simplest and most affordable way to provide the room with the necessary electrical energy. The work does not require serious effort and is carried out fairly quickly.
In addition, there is no need to spoil the interior, dismantling individual fragments or the entire interior decoration for laying wires. And in the event of a fire or short circuit, the problem can be fixed immediately, without wasting time on troubleshooting.
The required level of security of the system is ensured by special PVC cables, consisting of a box attached to the wall or ceiling and a practical cover plate, equipped with retaining clasps.They put the electric wire and pull it to the outlet, home appliances or lighting fixtures that need to be connected.
Products demonstrate high electrical insulating qualities, do not burn and have plasticity to bend. Available in a variety of shades "under the tree" and can be easily tinted with any type of modern construction paints.
Serious manufacturers who have proven themselves in the market give a product warranty of up to 25 years and promise that during this time the material will not lose its characteristics and will provide the wire with reliable and high-quality protection against any external manifestations.
Some experts consider fully or partially open wiring in the kitchen dangerous. Water vapor and sudden temperature fluctuations caused by the use of various household units, have a negative impact on the electrical grid and lead to problems.
The wires overheat, lose the integrity of the protective sheath and fail prematurely, often causing short circuits and a fire-hazardous situation. However, some owners neglect this advice and, for the sake of design, take an unnecessary risk.
The nuances of the arrangement of the hidden method
Hidden wiring involves the laying of all connecting elements inside the walls and ceiling. For proper arrangement in the ceilings and supporting structures, small grooves are punched, wires are laid there, and then they are filled with alabaster or cement and the final decorative coating is applied. This provides a high level of security and allows you to make any, the most complex interior in the kitchen.
However, this method has disadvantages. In order to detect the zone of malfunctions and implement even the most minimal repairs, it will be necessary to dismantle the exterior trim and pierce the wall. It is not possible to reach the place of malfunction in any other way.
Tools needed for work
For convenient and correct installation and electrical work, the home craftsman will need the following hand tools:
- a set of cross and straight screwdrivers;
- soldering iron;
- a hammer;
- electrical wall chaser if concealed wiring is to be done;
- electric hammer drill, equipped with drills with a pointy tip (for laying channels in concrete or brick walls);
- tester to check the presence / absence of voltage in the network.
All tools must have a complete protective coating on the handles, made of durable, non-conductive materials.
If, despite the advice of professionals and fire safety requirements, an open or combined wiring option is chosen, durable and durable dowels-nails will be needed. With their help, it will be possible to securely attach cable channels even to concrete walls. For surfaces that have a softer, more malleable structure, the simplest self-tapping screws or nails of small or medium size will do.
For fast, reliable and accurate fixation of wiring in strob will need plaster or alabaster. They freeze almost instantly and allow you to immediately continue working without losing precious time.
How to choose the correct cable section
The wire with the correct cross section is another important element for the proper arrangement of the energy supply of the kitchen. It is chosen, taking into account the total power of household appliances and lighting fixtures planned for use.
To connect table lamps, floor lamps, chandeliers or spotlight devices, copper wires or cables equipped with PVC insulation of PPV or PV grades that can withstand high operating loads (about 4.1 kW) for a long time are usually taken. The minimum allowable cross-section of the core in this embodiment is 1.5 millimeters.
Wires of the same class, but of a larger section (from 2.5 mm), are brought to the sockets responsible for connecting powerful modules of household appliances (microwave oven, coffee maker, toaster, etc.). If we neglect this item and take a thin wire, it will not withstand the operational load and in the future will lead to a short circuit or fire.
If you plan to use appliances with a metal housing for lighting the kitchen, you will not be able to manage a thin wire for the connection. In order to avoid voltage falling on the luminaire housing, it will be necessary to lead a three-core cable or a wire with a powerful protective sheath to the object. Only in this version of the installation of metal lamps will be completely safe.
When connecting to the network of high-power appliances (multi-cooker, oven, etc.), consuming 8-12 kW per hour, you will definitely need a separate branch from a three-core cable with copper conductors and durable, reliable NArite or PVC insulation. After installing the device, it will have to be grounded through the third core of the cable. The cross section of each core in this case should not be less than 6 mm.
General preparatory work
All work with wiring in the kitchen begins with the drafting of the project.First, determine the number of vehicles scheduled for subsequent placement. Required items include:
- stove (oven, hob).
Among the additional devices that make life more convenient and comfortable, are:
- electric kettle;
- sandwich maker;
- exhaust hood;
- food processor;
- coffee machine, etc.
Some complete the kitchen with all these items, others choose hotel positions, and others complement the list with a TV and a washing machine. All of these options are considered acceptable, provided that the wiring and installation for each unit is properly arranged for a separate outlet.
Then on paper they make a drawing and mark on it the supposed arrangement of furniture, lighting devices and household appliances regarding the layout of the room. There also indicate the location of outlets and switches / switches.
At the next stage, find out the type of network entering the residential area. If single-phase electrical supply is used, it will be problematic to connect several powerful household appliances at the same time.We will have to either reduce the number of used units, or turn them on strictly separately, so that no overload occurs in the network.
The three-phase network allows you to create wiring with a solid margin of power and makes it possible to use household appliances in the most convenient mode.
How to calculate the optimal power wiring
To provide all kitchen appliances and lighting with the necessary amount of electricity, you need to calculate the total power of all appliances planned for use at the stage of creating a wiring project. Rated power is specified in the data sheet of the unit. Having added all the indicators, it becomes clear how many kilowatts will be required for correct operation.
Typically, the value ranges from 8-15 kW, but in fact it can be both more and less. Of course, the situation when all devices are turned on at the same time happens extremely rarely, but, nevertheless, it is recommended to create the wiring with some power reserve in case of any unforeseen situations.
The nuances of installation in a closed and open way
For proper installation of closed electrical wiring, pre-marking is first applied to the walls, according to a predetermined pattern.
Then, according to the drawing, a special tool (chisel, wall chaser, auger and r.) Makes grooves in the walls for laying the wire and then masking it under the finishing finish. If there is a need to make a turn, it is performed strictly at an angle of 90 °.
At the next stage, nests are prepared for podozetniki and embedded sockets, and then the wires, enclosed in corrugated pipes, are laid in the strobe channel. For fixing the position, holes are made every 30 cm in the gate and the dowel-clamps are attached to the cable. At the end of the installation, the channels are covered with plaster or alabaster solution.
Plastic podozetniki are mounted into the prepared recesses and wires are drawn through them for the subsequent connection of sockets and switches. The position is aligned to the construction level and carry out the fastening on the screw and the solution.
Places twist several wires mask polymer or steel boxes, placing them flush with the level of the wall. At the last moment, the cables from the sockets, lighting points and switches / switches in the junction box are connected to the main input wire of the power grid.The connection areas are neatly protected with tape or PPE.
Features open mounting options
For the organization of open wiring using special rubber wires with a copper or aluminum vein, the separation base and the outer PVC protective layer. They are fastened to walls and ceilings on nails threaded through porcelain rollers with good insulating properties. Mounting blocks are placed at a distance of 500 mm from each other.
How to place sockets
Before proceeding with the installation of sockets, mount the introductory shield. Special fuses are placed in it (residual current devices - RCD). In the event of overvoltage, they will have time to de-energize the system, preventing the circuit or the fire.
To each element of the RCD, a separate loop connects (depending on need) up to 5 parallel connections.Local and general lighting circuits are connected separately. When the guard is installed, proceed to the organization of the correct wiring sockets in the kitchen.
For such an event, the general rules apply:
- In the immediate vicinity of the sink or plate outlet never place. The ingress of moisture and hot vapors that occur during cooking can cause deformation of the body of the part, a short circuit or a fire.
- When laying the connecting cable do not leave sagging long wires, and pull them to the wall with suitable fasteners.
- The socket itself should be 16 amps. In the end, weaker parts will not withstand the intense operational load, will begin to melt or spar and will soon need to be replaced.
- Have sockets in diameter not more than 1 meter from the appliance. A longer distance will require the use of an extension cord, and this will be inconvenient and unsafe.
- Install sockets in strict accordance with general safety standards (at a distance of 30-40 cm from the floor). If there are children in the house, equip hidden sockets or “hide” them in the table top or other pieces of furniture.
For the socket to serve for a long time and withstand a full operational load, choose models equipped with nickel-plated lamellae and ceramic plates. They differ in endurance and fully work in active mode for a long time.
Tips and current safety guidelines
Kitchen wiring is one of the most important sections of the entire electrical network in an apartment or a private house. It is desirable that its installation involved professionals with special specialized knowledge, suitable qualifications and experience of similar work.
But usually such services are highly valued, and many home craftsmen, deciding to save money, try to draw up a general wiring diagram in the kitchen on their own, in order to carry out wiring, wiring and installation of sockets.
Such an approach is quite acceptable under the condition of attentive attitude to the case and knowledge of general safety regulations.After all, electrical energy is not only light, heat and other amenities in residential premises, but also a constant source of increased danger.
Safety when working with power grids
When arranging electrical wiring in the kitchen, you must strictly follow all standards and be sure to adhere to generally accepted safety rules.
This will protect against errors that could in the future lead to a fire wire, short circuit and electric shock.
- Wiring is carried out strictly with the power cut off. If the switchboard is in the public area, a warning sign is posted on it about ongoing work.
- Connecting to the central network of household appliances do according to the accompanying instructions, always bundled with appliances.
- For work they use tools provided with an insulating coating that does not have cracks, gaps or any other external damage.
- When installing electrical wiring, screwdrivers, pliers and pliers that have structural or locking elements made of conductive materials are not used.
- Immediately before laying in the room, they organize cleaning and scrupulously eliminate any dampness (evaporation on the windows and the ceiling, puddles or water drops on the floor, etc.).
- All activities with electrical systems are carried out only with dry hands. For an additional guarantee, use special gloves with rubber coating, thus protecting themselves from possible injuries and burns.
Knowing these simple rules and clearly following them, correctly laying the wiring, while avoiding electric shock, can even an amateur who does not have much experience with such a plan.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The video explains in detail how to organize the wiring in the kitchen and provide all household appliances with a full power supply. In addition to the basic information, the video contains a description of interesting nuances and some useful tips for home craftsmen.
How to properly position the sockets in the kitchen so that they harmoniously fit into the future interior, are comfortable to use, invisible and absolutely safe for both adults and children.
Features of the formation of the wiring in the kitchen. Tips and tricks from a professional for home craftsmen.
Organizing wiring in the kitchen with your own hands is a long process that requires a lot of attention, accuracy and scrupulousness. It is very important to carry out all the work in strict accordance with the developed and approved project documentation and to strictly follow the safety regulations relevant for the arrangement of electrical networks.
Then the wiring will properly serve for a long time and will provide all kitchen appliances and lighting with a full power supply.