Do-it-yourself electric underfloor heating: device, installation technology and wiring diagrams
The type of heating in which heat is generated through the use of electrical energy is distinguished by a simple circuit to perform, and its installation takes a minimum of time.
It is not necessary to be a professional to arrange an electric underfloor heating with your own hands, you just need to follow all the instructions exactly.
Electric floors and their varieties
Depending on the heater used, the floors with electric heating are divided into 2 categories: with a heating element in the form of a cable and with an infrared one.
According to the method of production they are divided into 4 types:
- Heating cableIt can be single-2-core, including self-regulating.
- Heating mat.It is a cable on the mounting grid.
- Film.Polymer flexible fabric with built-in infrared heating element.
- Rod.Consists of carbon fiber rods connected in series.
Calculate a warm electric floor, based on the size of the free part of the room environment. It is not recommended to lay heating elements under the furniture because of the excess load on the system in the specified areas. The power of the floor is chosen from considerations of 0, 1 kW / m² on average. For different rooms, this figure is different.
It is important to calculate the step before starting work, which will then be laid out cable. To do this, find the quotient from dividing the area planned for laying the heating system in m², multiplied by 100 and divided by the section length in m, taken from the passport.
Cable heating system
Heat transfer cable heat floor is very high, virtually all electrical energy is converted into heat. It includes a heater cable, coupling, devices for adjustment and control. The cable is laid both in the screed and under the floor covering.
Features of work and device
There is no heating boiler in the system, the electrical cable itself gives off heat. Most often it is used as an auxiliary type of heating, but if the house is well insulated, then the floor, heated with a cable, can serve as the main source of heat. The cable is laid in 3 ways: under the screed, inside and above it.
It is necessary to position it evenly, maintaining a distance from one to the other heating line of at least 80 mm and avoiding intersections, kinks and stress on turns. It is easy to damage the cable during installation; therefore, experienced craftsmen recommend wearing soft shoes or covering already assembled areas with sheets of plywood.
Installation of electrical floor in the screed
The installation process in the screed electric floor heating is labor intensive. The advantage of this method is that the heating element, being in the center of the screed, will heat up the surface more quickly and evenly. The technological process consists of several stages.
First pour the first layer - this will be the basis. The plates are pre-cleaned. With the aid of a perforator, they widen cracks over a millimeter wide and fill them, as well as chips and holes, with mortar. The plate is leveled horizontally, if necessary, apply the composition of "self-leveling floors." After the base has dried, a liquid waterproofing is applied, and I leave it for 2 hours to dry.
A thermally insulating substrate with a foiled heat-reflecting layer is spread over the surface.If there is an unheated room at the bottom, then choose heat insulation with a height of 5 to 10 cm. Otherwise, a layer of 2-3 cm is enough. Seals the joints and seams with foil tape.
Perform the assembly of the heating circuit. In the perpendicular direction with respect to the wall chosen for the installation of the control unit, strip strips are mounted for fixing the cable. The edges of the polymer strips should end at a distance of 50-100 mm from the walls.
If mounting strips are taken instead of strips, they are removed from the walls by 200 mm. Before laying the warm floor check the resistance of the cable with a tester. The readings are compared with the passport, the allowable difference is 10% maximum.
The starting point in the wiring diagram of the electric floor heating cable according to the classic version is the control unit. Make out the calculation in the form of "snake" and have parallel to the wall. All transitions to the next turn should be outside the border rails. At the finish on the opposite wall should be an insulated end. The option when installation starts from the end is also possible.
After the line is fully laid, the temperature sensor is mounted in the metal corrugated pipe between the turns. The wires lead towards the plinth, and then to the control unit. You should not blast the sensors into concrete - their extraction, if necessary, becomes very difficult.
After checking the reliability of fixation of the laid elements, they are poured with a layer of concrete solution with a thickness of about 60 mm. The solution must be well sealed. If voids remain, the thermal conductivity of the upper layer will decrease.
In the role of the control unit for underfloor heating is the thermostat. He is responsible for processing information from the temperature sensor, and turning off or turning on the system in accordance with the settings. The thermostat can be both programmable and without software. Connect it to the socket 220 V. Place for installation is chosen on the site with free access.
Experts do not recommend to connect the control unit to a regular outlet.This can create an additional load on the wiring. You must create a separate branch to connect the system.
In some cases, the cable is laid in the grooves made in the concrete screed. The cable in the grooves is filled with tile glue. The advantage of this method is that the level of the finish coating remains at the same level. After the installation of the cable is completed, the floor is turned on only after 2 weeks.
Electric floor based thermomat
For the production of thermomats use cable no thicker than 45 mm. It is fixed on a 0.5 m wide fiberglass mesh. The cable has a shielded and protected outer sheath. For residential premises, heating mats with a double core are used because of their significantly lower level of electromagnetic radiation.
Principle of operation and facilities
The heating mat includes 2 elements: the actual thermomat with cable and corrugation. Inside it insert the sensor, and it protects it from moisture and aggressive effects.If the glue layer is so thin that it cannot completely close the corrugation, you need to use a moisture-proof sensor.
Thermostat complete with a remote temperature sensor, wiring boxes, wires purchased separately. When choosing the first element take into account the maximum energy consumption. The cross section of the wires are selected, focusing on the power system and the material of manufacture.
The installation process is extremely simple, since thermomat - a product completely ready for installation. There is no need to fix the heating cable, and the uniformity of installation is provided by the design itself. Its cost is higher than that of the cable floor, but it has a lot of advantages, including a faster heating of the surface.
Installation of thermal mats
Before laying out the heat mat, the floor is covered with a layer of primer. This will increase glue adhesion to the concrete surface. Usually, the glue is applied immediately to the mat, but if it is a wet room, then after applying and drying a thin layer of glue, it is covered with waterproofing and then again with glue.In order not to violate the integrity of the cable and evenly apply the binder, it is necessary to distribute the adhesive composition using a plastic comb.
Glue is laid on the tile and level it. Tile plus glue should give a total of 20 mm, although some manufacturers recommend a minimum of 50 mm. This is explained by the fact that with such a thickness of the layer, the heat is distributed more evenly.
In accordance with the EMP, it is imperative to install a safety switch-off to ensure safety and a circuit breaker. If the system is installed in a bathroom, the thermostat should be moved to an adjacent dry room.
The specifics of the film floor
In the device system of a warm film electric floor there are no special difficulties.Many stack it yourself. It is suitable for any flooring. The system, which is based on infrared radiation, is safe even for laminate and other wood coatings. There are 2 types of such films for the floor:
- Solid. Available in the form of a thin two-layer polyurethane film with continuous carbon coating inside.
- Striped. Including the same 2 layers of polyester film, polyester or polyurethane with carbon-fiber or ultra-thin aluminum stripes located between them.
Thermal elements in these systems have parallel and serial connections. At the edges they have bimetallic current-carrying tires of silver and copper strips stacked on top of each other. The infrared film floor is not made with the screed coating or in the layer of glue. Only “dry” styling is suitable.
The warm infrared floor has a number of advantages. These include:
- easy and quick installation;
- small film thickness (0.3 cm) which does not significantly reduce the height of the room;
- the possibility of excluding such a working moment as pouring a screed;
- no effect on indoor humidity;
- antiallergic effect;
- relatively low energy consumption - 20% less than other types of electric heating systems;
- air ionization;
- easy disassembly if necessary;
- high reliability.
The standard set of materials includes thermofilm, twisted into a roll, contact clips, insulation and electrical wiring. To this set it is necessary to add a thermostat equipped with a temperature sensor, as well as plastic film, tape, foil material. Before you buy all this, you need to calculate the required footage of the film.
The easiest way to make a sketch of the premises on graph paper. Next, you should note the places where the sensors and connection points will be placed. Select the part of the room where you plan to install a warm infrared floor, then calculate how many heating elements will be required.
The process of laying the infrared system
If the previous coating is in a normal condition, then it is allowed not to dismantle it by the technology of laying an electric infrared heat-insulated floor. Simply clean and eliminate the drops. A roll of film floor is cut using ordinary scissors.
It should be borne in mind that when forming the surface, the strips should not overlap or come into contact with conductive tires. Manufacturers usually designate cutting points. This does not mean that the film can not be cut in other convenient places.
The main thing is that the cut must pass through the gap between the heating elements. If the incision falls on the designated line, only collector bimetallic plates are insulated. In other cases, tape the ends of the strips.
First lay a layer of waterproofing to protect the floor from moisture from the concrete floor. Next is the insulation, which prevents the loss of heat from the radiation reaching the base. Material can be used any, the main thing that the metallized party was directed outside.
Mark up the place where the wiring will take place. After assigning space for the installation of the sensor. The channel under the temperature sensor perform a width of about 20 mm. Wiring for the sensor is placed in a corrugated tube, then placed in the prepared channel.
Then stack the prepared strips according to the sketch. In order to reduce the length of the wire when laying the strip, it is turned with the face side to the wall, where the thermostat will later be located and stop, not reaching 15 centimeters before it. the manufacturer of the system is specified in the product instruction.
Connect the clips to the edge of the bimetallic strip, then connect the wires — the left clips are attached to the left clips and the right clips to the right clips.The wiring for the thermal sensor should be hidden under the thermal film. For this purpose, narrow grooves 1 cm wide are cut out in thermal insulation, and an adhesive tape is glued over the power cable laid in them and covered with a thermal film. We can not allow the wires to rise above the insulation.
The insulation on the edge of the wire is removed, rolled up, the wire itself is pushed through the clamp, fixed with pliers, then the connection point is insulated with bitumen tape. By connecting the entire circuit, measure the resistance of the resulting structure.
The final stage is the installation of the finishing coating. The principle of connection of the thermostat is the same for all types of warm electric floor.
Some useful tips
Before completing the work by laying the finish coating the system is tested. If the thermofilm meets all requirements, there will be no sparking and overheating of areas anywhere. When any defects are detected, the floor is covered with another layer of polyethylene film with a minimum thickness of 80 microns. It is laid overlapping with an approach of about 20 cm.
There are a number of additional recommendations from installation professionals:
- Film warm system must be installed at moderate humidity (maximum 60%) and above zero temperature.
- The film in a minimized form can not be connected to the network.
- Before connecting the film floor, it is necessary to check the insulation of the contacts in the places where the cutting of the blade occurred.
- In the event of damage to the thermofilm in the place where the graphite coating is located, apply two-sided insulation.
- If the floor is flooded, it is immediately disconnected from the mains and left to dry in natural conditions.
- Walking on the finished floor in the shoes can not be.
It is impossible to wall the thermal sensor. It is necessary to leave the opportunity for its control and replacement. Also, do not place carpets and other dense natural surfaces on the warm floor. To ensure ventilation and eliminate the possibility of deformation of the final coating due to temperature changes, it is recommended to leave a slight gap between the wall and the coating.
Warm floor rod type
Rod or carbon floor is a core structure that heats the room with infrared rays of a far wave.In this range there is no electromagnetic radiation. Its peculiarity is that it is not the atmosphere that is heated, but the objects present in the room.
Subtleties of work and organization
Its composition contains carbon rods connected in parallel into elastic mats 0.8 m wide and 25 m long using power wires. Inside the "carpet" placed heating elements. The interior of the rods consists of carbon, silver, copper, and the heat is emitted by the first of them.
In addition to the rods in the composition of the floor there is a temperature sensor and thermostat. Such a floor has the property of self-regulation. This means that the amount of heat is directly proportional to temperature. The disadvantage is that its installation is possible only with the use of screed, therefore, its dismantling is out of the question.
If you put any object on the floor plane,heat transfer in the space occupied by it decreases, and the rods begin to emit less heat, thus lowering the temperature. Consequently, the thermostat is only needed for power control, the rod floor itself performs the function of preventing overheating.
The nuances of installation and connection
Although the core floor is considered an intellectual system, it can be laid with your own hands. The technology is simple, but it will work provided that all requirements are met.
The process consists of 8 consecutive steps:
- preparation of the base;
- laying heat reflector;
- mounting rods;
- connections between the bands;
- power cable connections;
- connecting the structure to the thermostat;
- connect the temperature sensor;
- Tile fills or installation of a tile-type topcoat.
Before performing these works, plan in which direction the heating mat will be laid and calculate the amount of material. The carbon floor comes on sale in a kit, but sometimes you have to buy some of the consumables. The choice of power is influenced by 2 factors: the area and type of heating. By the power of the rod heated floors are divided into 2 types: up to 160 W / m² and up to 220 W / m².
The most rational variant of the location of the heating mat is along the long wall with orientation to the heat regulator, since In this case, when connecting to a temperature controller, you can take shorter wires and reduce the number of cuts.
Most manufacturers produce a complete set for installation. At a minimum, it includes a rod mat, connecting kit and end, wires, installation instructions.Everything else: insulation, tape, corrugated pipe with a plug, a thermostat, a sensor, bitumen insulation - is purchased separately.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
You will learn all about laying the pivot floor in this video instruction:
It will be easier to choose the type of electric floor if you read this video:
How to not spend too much when buying a floor heating system will teach the author of this video:
Heating the house with the use of electric underfloor heating will allow you to maintain a comfortable temperature. The temperature difference between the top of the room and the floor will be minimal. If you choose the right system, just calculate everything and do the installation yourself, then in terms of finance you can win.