> Description

> History of cross-stitch development

The most ancient embroideries that have survived to the present day date back to the scientists of the 6th-5th centuries BC. They were created in the territory of ancient China. Silk fabrics served as the basis for embroidery. The drawing was done with hair, raw silk, gold and silver threads. Embroidery art of ancient China had a huge impact on the needlework of Japan, Russia and other countries.

The first fabrics that were suitable for embroidery were made from wool. But the palm was taken by linen fabric, which was distinguished by its whiteness and appropriate structure. Her homeland is Ancient India.

During the Middle Ages, embroidery appeared in Byzantium. From there, through Italy, it spread to the North and West of Europe. It was then that the use of ancient German embroidery on linen began to be used and to date. Later this type of needlework was called “cross-stitch.

Cross-stitch has reached particular popularity in Western Europe in the 16th century.It was a period of church popularity, and most often embroidered icons, biblical scenes and texts of prayers. Patterns strictly obeyed the “square” pattern of linen weave fabric.

In the 17th and 18th centuries, embroidery was enriched with plant and flower details.

Embroidery was widely used in the East. They embroidered flowers most often and used a huge amount of colored threads. Embroidery of Iran and India differed a set of plant motifs, the image of various birds. Embroidery Byzantium differed beauty of silk embroidery and a variety of patterns.

In Russia, cross-stitch has an ancient history. The cross has always been considered by Russians as a guardian, which is able to protect against evil forces, the evil eye and other misfortunes.

Embroidery in Russia decorated shoes, clothing, housing, horse harness, household items. The motifs used by embroiderers were varied. Most often you can find the image of a human figure with raised hands, a sacred tree, symbolic birds of paradise and fabulous animals.

The best preserved products of the XIX century. In those days, cross-stitch embroidery was subdivided into peasant (folk) and urban.Folk embroidery was associated with the customs of the Russian peasantry, and urban cross-stitch experienced the influence of Western fashion and did not have strong traditions.

By 13-15 years old peasant girls had to prepare a dowry for themselves. These were embroidered tablecloths, towels, hats. Before the wedding, a public dowry show was held as evidence of the bride's skill.

On the territory of Russia, archaeologists discovered fragments of clothing embroidered with gold threads. These finds belong to the IX-XII centuries. It means that cross-stitch has existed and developed in the epoch of Ancient Russia. From pagan times, embroiderers created scenes of everyday life in their embroidery with a cross. Embroidery decorated sheets, wedding and festive shirts, towels, curtains, canvas sundresses, handkerchiefs. Later, in Christian times, it became customary in Russia to decorate the icons of mirrors and windows with embroidered towels.

> Types of crosses

· A simple cross begins to embroider on the right top diagonally from the left to the bottom down, and finish right from the bottom on the diagonal to the left upwards. All top stitches should lie in the same direction.

· Semi-cross - the first stitch of sewing ordinary cross.

· The elongated cross is an embroidery technique of this cross similar to a simple cross, only the cross fills not one square of the canvas, but two or three cells located vertically.

· Elongated cross with stitching - elongated cross with a small horizontal stitch in the center.

· Slavic cross - elongated crosses intersecting with a slope.

· Straight cross - consists of vertical and horizontal lines.

· Alternating crosses - this embroidery consists of ordinary crosses and other straight lines. Begin to embroider from left to right; hold the thread through four vertical threads and between the four horizontal ones from top to bottom.

· Double cross - alternation of simple crosses and small straight lines between them.

· The “Star” cross is another type of crossing, consisting of a straight cross, on which four inclined diagonal stitches of the same or smaller size are superimposed.

· Cross Leviathan (Bulgarian) - the seam differs from a simple cross in that it is complicated by two more intersecting lines (vertical and horizontal).

· Rice stitch - first fill the entire background with large crosses in four and four threads,and then only proceed to rice stitches. These are stitches passing through the ends of the four branches of a large cross so that they converge in the space between the crosses, forming, in turn, a new cross. For the first crosses, they take a rather thick thread, and for the second, a thinner thread of a different color.

Sashnikova Elena

Presentation to the creative project (grade 9) and job description

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Completed student 9a class Sashnikova Elena Olegovna Head Murashova Tatyana V. Cross-stitch

Introduction Cross-stitch is one of the most ancient types of needlework, which attracts many men and women around the world. And this is not surprising, because everything that is needed for embroidery is patience, patience and, once again, patience. Embroidery is the kind of needlework that has been created for many years, making your home warm and cozy, delighting and attracting the interest of others.

From the history of cross stitch The history of cross stitching goes far back into the past, when the first stitch made by primitive people appeared when binding the skin of a killed mammoth.The material for embroidery was used as a cross: the veins of animals, flax, cotton, hemp, silk, wool, as well as natural hair. The most ancient embroideries that have survived to the present day date back to the scientists of the 6th-5th centuries BC. Embroidery in Russia decorated shoes, clothing, housing, horse harness, household items.

The idea of ​​the project Embroidered paintings - this is one of those elements of interior decor that never go out of style. Embroidered paintings are also valuable because they carry not only external beauty, but much more - the warmth of skillful hands, love, positive warm energy. Embroidered paintings can decorate any room in the apartment - a kitchen, living room, bedroom and even a nursery. The main thing is that the picture (both the frame and the picture) harmoniously fit into the interior style both in color and subject matter.

The technology of cross-stitch embroidery Cross-stitching on fabrics, on which the warp threads are clearly visible. One cross stitch should completely fill one small square of fabric. Linen and cotton mercerized threads and floss in different colors are used for embroidery. Careful and reliable fastening of the thread is the basis of embroidery.There are simple requirements for this important aspect of embroidery:  no knots,  at the end of embroidery with a thread, fasten it no less than under 4-5 stitches on the wrong side, об cut the already fixed tip of the thread close to the fabric. It will be easier to achieve perfect crosses if you follow some rules:  do not use a thread that is too long,  carefully ensure that the upper stitches are always directed in one direction (“/” is the lower stitch, “\” is the upper stitch).

Materials and tools. Hand embroidery requires very simple tools: needles, thimble, scissors, measuring tape, hoop, fabric. For cross stitching, it is most convenient to use a canvas. Embroidered with different threads: iris, floss, staple, silk, wool, bobbins.

Safety regulations It is very important to pay attention to the workplace when embroidering. It is best to equip it by the window, because you need good lighting while working, this will allow you to maintain your vision. At night, be sure to use a desk lamp. The rules for TB when working with piercing and cutting tools: 1) do not stick the needle into work while in work or do not leave it in the workplace; 2) the needle should always be threaded,in case of loss, you should immediately look for it; 3) do not bite off the thread with your teeth, but cut with scissors; 4) do not sew with a rusty needle; 5) to transfer the scissors rings forward; 6) do not take needles in the mouth; 7) to store scissors in styling, and needles in needle cases.

Calculation of the cost of the product No. Materials used Price (rubles) Consumption Costs (rubles) 1 Outline "Aida" No. 16, white, 100% cotton 155 50 * 55c m 155 2 Wooden hoops, diameter 20cm 165 1 piece 165 3 Threads of gamma “15 25 pieces 375 4 Tapestry needles No. 22 (set of 5 pieces) 35 1 pieces 7 5 Thimble 40 1 pieces 40 6 Centimeter tape 15 1 pieces 15 7 The scheme for Tiger embroidery 30 1 pieces 30

Ecological expertise We list the components necessary for work. These include: thread, canvas, hoops and needles for work. In this paper, I use the threads of the Russian production company "Gamma". The hoop of the wonderful beech wood, made in India. Needles - from high-alloy steel - made in Russia, for durable use. It follows from the above that the main components for embroidery do not harm the nature, neither in the production process nor in the process of exploitation. They do not cause allergies, do not irritate the eyes and ear of a person.

Self-evaluation Embroidery drives away stress and dark thoughts.Calms the nervous system, improves mood. Attentiveness, concentration increases, perseverance and accuracy are developed. In addition, embroidery has opened in me design abilities. On jeans, pants, blouses, I can, if desired, apply a nice embroidery that will make clothes more fashionable and original.

Conclusion Finishing this work, I am summarizing my embroidery activity at this stage. The main thing is, of course, the great aesthetic spiritual pleasure that I received while going through all the stages of embroidering a picture. Having spent many hours and days at work, I once again faced the need for discipline, organization, control over myself. In an elevated, enthusiastic state, I tune in to other works. Thank you, embroidery!

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Voskresensk city 2011

Introduction …………………………………………………………………………… p.3

  1. From the history of embroidery ……………………………………………… .... p.4
  2. The idea of ​​the project ……………………………………………… ................. p.6
  3. Technology of cross-stitching ... .. ... .. ...................... p.8
  4. Materials, tools, equipment ………………………… .s.13
  5. Safety Regulations …………………………………… ..p.15
  6. Calculation of the cost of the product ……………………………… ........... p.16
  7. Ecological expertise ………………………………………… ..с.17

Conclusion …………………………………………………………………. ... ..... p.19

References ………………………………………… .с.20

Appendix 1 …………………………………………………………………… .с.21

Appendix 2 …………………………………………………………………… .s.22

Appendix 3 …………………………………………………………………… .с.24

Appendix 4 …………………………………………………………………… .s.26

Introduction

Cross-stitching is an uncomplicated needlework, which, however, you can “get sick” for a lifetime. This type of embroidery is perfect for working on small details with numerous color transitions, and from a distance it looks almost like painting. You can become the owner of a unique copy of the canvas of the famous artist, mastering the art of transforming the priceless masterpiece of world painting into a cross-stitched picture.

Cross-stitch embroidery is one of the most ancient types of needlework, which attracts many men and women around the world. And this is not surprising, because everything that is needed for embroidery is patience, patience and, once again, patience.

Embroidery, like any creative activity, must be given in full! She needs to devote a lot of free time, she needs to set herself up for a good mood and see her work as useful and refined work.

It turns out that cross-stitching is to some extent a luxury. ... But, the desire to create beautiful creations with your own hands, was, is and will be! The one who is keen on embroidery knows why he loves this activity so much - the whole thing is in the process of creation, when the birth of beauty occurs before our eyes, and in the feeling of satisfaction and joy that comes with the end of work. After all, embroidery is the kind of needlework that has been created for many years, making your home warm and cozy, delighting and attracting the interest of others.

From the history of embroidery.

Cross stitching is one of the most common types of folk art. The history of cross stitching goes far back into the centuries when the first stitch made by primitive people appeared when the skin of a killed mammoth was fastened. The material for embroidery was used as a cross: the veins of animals, flax, cotton, hemp, silk, wool, as well as natural hair.

The most ancient embroideries that have survived to the present day date back to the scientists of the 6th-5th centuries BC. They were created in the territory of ancient China. Silk fabrics served as the basis for embroidery, the drawing was done with hair, raw silk, gold and silver threads. Embroidery art of ancient China had a huge impact on the needlework of Japan, Russia and other countries.

The first fabrics that were suitable for embroidery were made from wool. But the palm was taken by linen fabric, which was distinguished by its whiteness and appropriate structure. Her homeland is Ancient India.

Cross-stitch has reached particular popularity in Western Europe in the 16th century. It was a period of church popularity, and most often embroidered icons, biblical scenes and texts of prayers.

Embroidery was also widely used in the East. They embroidered flowers most often and used a huge amount of flowers. Embroidery of Iran and India differed a set of plant motifs, the image of various birds. Embroidery Byzantium differed beauty of silk embroidery and a variety of patterns.

In Russia, cross-stitch has an ancient history. The cross has always been considered by Russians as a guardian, which is able to protect against evil forces, the evil eye and other misfortunes.

Embroidery in Russia decorated shoes, clothing, housing, horse harness, household items. The motifs used by embroiderers were varied. Most often you can find the image of a human figure with raised hands, a sacred tree, symbolic birds of paradise and fabulous animals.

The best preserved products of the XIX century. In those days, cross-stitch embroidery was subdivided into peasant (folk) and urban. Folk embroidery was associated with the customs of the Russian peasantry, and urban cross-stitch experienced the influence of Western fashion and did not have strong traditions.

By 13-15 years old peasant girls had to prepare a dowry for themselves. These were embroidered tablecloths, towels, hats. Before the wedding, a public dowry show was held as evidence of the bride's skill.

On the territory of Russia, archaeologists discovered fragments of clothing embroidered with gold threads. These finds belong to the IX-XII centuries. It means that cross-stitch has existed and developed in the epoch of Ancient Russia. From pagan times, embroiderers created scenes of everyday life in their embroidery with a cross. Embroidery decorated sheets, wedding and festive shirts, towels, curtains, canvas sundresses, handkerchiefs.Later, in Christian times, it became customary in Russia to decorate the icons of mirrors and windows with embroidered towels.

The idea of ​​the project.

Embroidered paintings - this is one of those elements of interior decor that never go out of fashion. Our grandmothers and great-grandmothers decorated their houses with embroidered paintings and murals. Nevertheless, beautiful embroidered still lifes, landscapes, portraits and icons can transform and decorate the most modern interior. Handmade paintings are always unique and original, they attract attention and make an indelible impression on guests.

Embroidered paintings are also valuable because they carry not only external beauty, but much more - the warmth of skillful hands, love, positive warm energy. Therefore, the interior, in which there are embroidered paintings, becomes so warm and homely.

Pictures can be embroidered with various materials: colored threads (cross, satin stitch, etc.), satin and silk ribbons, beads. Today, the most popular are three-dimensional paintings, embroidered with ribbons, as well as cross-stitch.

Thanks to modern technologies, it is possible to develop an individual embroidery pattern literally for any favorite image or photo.A rich selection of threads, ribbons and embroidery fabrics themselves make the process of creating paintings even more interesting, and the result is much more beautiful.

Embroidered paintings can decorate any room in the apartment - a kitchen, living room, bedroom and even a nursery. The main thing, so that the picture (both the frame and the picture) harmoniously fit into the style of the interior both in color and theme. An embroidered picture-still-life with appetizing fruits and beautiful vases will suit the kitchen. For the living room, you can embroider someone's portrait or a picturesque landscape in such colors that suit the color scheme of the room. In the children's room there is also a place for a bright and colorful embroidered picture with the image of fairy-tale characters or funny little animals.

Hanging embroidered pictures should be approximately at the level of a person’s eyes in order to be able to appreciate the beauty of this handmade work. If there are a lot of embroidered paintings in the house, then those that are larger in size should be placed on the wall a little higher, and small ones - lower.

(see Appendices 1)

Technology cross stitch.

Fabrics and threads for embroidery are chosen depending on the purpose of the future product, the nature of the pattern and the method of its execution.

Cross stitching on fabrics, which are clearly visible warp threads. One cross stitch should completely fill one small square of fabric. Therefore, a cross is embroidered on canvases woven on the basis of a square, that is, on canvases where the warp and weft threads are at right angles to each other and where these threads are of equal thickness. It is best to use linen like linen as a fabric for counting embroidery.

Linen and cotton mercerized threads and floss in different colors are used for embroidery. The floss has a strong color, shine and the necessary strength. Woolen, staple, silk, synthetic threads (Kashmilon, Dacron, Kapron), iris, cotton and wool garus are also suitable. The floss floss is opened and cut in the place where the bundle is located. The skein consists of 14 skeins, each of which has 6 thin threads.

Careful and reliable fastening of the thread is the basis of embroidery. This is the beauty of the inside and durability of embroidery. Badly fixed ends of the threads come out at the first wash. There are simple (even banal somewhere) requirements for this important aspect of embroidery:

 no nodes;

try not to hide the tips of the dark threads under the stitches made with light threads. Sometimes, however, this requirement cannot be fulfilled, for example, a single dark stitch of the eye on a bright face, and then you need to look carefully so that the hidden tip does not appear through to the front side;

at the end of embroidery thread, fasten it no less than 4-5 stitches on the wrong side;

cut the already fixed tip of the thread against the fabric, otherwise by the end of your work your seamy side will look like a terry towel.

If you are embroidering with an even number of threads, then try to fasten the thread at the beginning of the embroidery using the “loop” method.

The desire for a beautiful and smooth crosses, as well as a beautiful inside out, can only cause respect. Of course, the very understanding of even crosses does not come immediately, but, putting the soul into embroidery, you should not forget about the technique. To achieve the ideal crosses will be easier if you follow some rules:

do not use too long thread;

closely monitor that the upper stitches are always directed in one direction ("/" - lower stitch, "\" - upper stitch);

when embroidering, the thread is twisted, and this significantly impairs the appearance of crosses. Allow the needle to hang freely for a few seconds, and the thread unwinds itself;

when embroidering with any number of threads, except for one, you need to ensure that the threads lay flat, not twisting between each other.

Embroidery with a simple cross.

For convenience, it is best to pull the work on a special frame for embroidery - hoop.
In order for the embroidery to be more visual, all upper stitches should lie in one direction (in one direction), for this you need to immediately get used to perform the lower cross stitch from the upper left side to the lower right. A line of crosses is embroidered in two steps: first, we sew a line from the bottom stitches in the right quantity, then finish the crosses with the top stitches.

Extended cross.

Rows of elongated crosses are made in two steps, starting from the top right: bring the needle to the front side at point 1 and enter it at point 2. Repeat the embroidery, moving to the left.
Reaching the end of the row, bring the needle to the front side to point 3 and enter it to point 4, crossing the first stitch. Repeat the embroidery, moving to the right.

Extended cross with stitching.

We start from the top right: Bring the needle to the front side at point 1 and enter at point 2, then at points 3 and 4, then print at point 5 and enter at point 6 by stitching back a needle in the middle of the cross. Move the needle on the wrong side under point 3 to start the next cross on the left.

Embroidery straight cross.

The top row of embroidery is performed from left to right: Move the needle to the front side at point 1 and enter at point 2, then output at point 3 and enter at point 4. After move the needle from the wrong side of the embroidery under point 5 to start the next item to the right.

Alternating crosses.

We begin to embroider on the left above. Embroidery should be performed in the sequence shown in the figure, sticking to it, embroider small crosses under the elongated ones and vice versa.

Sewing double cross.

We begin to embroider on the left above. Embroidery should be performed in the sequence shown in the figure, alternating large and small crosses in the first row. On the way back, from right to left, embroider only small ones.

Seam asterisk.

We begin to embroider on the left above. Embroidery should be performed in the sequence shown in the figure, performing a slanting cross over the stitches of a vertical cross.Embroider the second row in the same order, but moving, from right to left.


Seam Leviathan.

We begin to embroider on the left above. Embroidery should be performed in the sequence shown in the figure, performing a straight cross over the stitches of a large oblique cross. Embroider the second row in the same order, but moving, from right to left.

Many works are embroidered long enough, and as a result, embroidery becomes polluted. Therefore, at the end of the work, the embroidery should be washed in lukewarm water with the addition of vinegar (to avoid moulting, besides, their original shine will return to the threads). For washing it is necessary to use gentle washing powders (preferably liquid) or baby soap. In no case is the embroidery unscrewed, it is gently pressed through a towel and hung to dry, but not until it is completely dry, but to slightly noticeable moisture. After washing the work is better to iron. Embroidered works are ironed from the inside out through wet gauze.

For someone to embroider a lot of work in a couple of months - this is normal, and someone can embroider it for a year or more.

Embroidery should bring joy. Moreover, the source may be completely different stages: the choice of the project, the beginning, the process, the end or the admiration of the result.Perhaps the implementation for you - this is only a technical process and satisfaction will come only after a visit to the framing workshop. Then speed is more important than for a person who enjoys a leisurely embroidery process.

(see Appendix 2)

Materials, tools, equipment

.

Hand embroidery requires very simple tools: needles, thimble, scissors, measuring tape, hoops, fabric.

The main part of the stitches when embroidering with a cross is performed by counting the threads of the fabric, therefore it is necessary to choose a fabric of a light tone: white, yellow, blue, light green, beige - plain weave. It can be linen fabric, flax with lavsan, homespun cloth, canvas. For cross stitching, it is most convenient to use a canvas.

There is a wide variety of materials from which canvas is produced (silk, flax, cotton, blends), but its main indicator — the dimension of the canvas — comes from English traditions and is indicated by a number, meaning the number of crosses per inch of fabric. The most popular dimensions of the canvas are the 14th and 18th, that is, fourteen and eighteen crosses per inch or, respectively, 5.5 cells / cm and 7.2 cells / cm.

Embroidered with different threads: iris, floss, staple, silk, wool, bobbins. The floss threads, so as not to be confused, braid the net in a pigtail, cutting the skein where the beginning and the end are tied with a knot. It is necessary to pull one cord (6 thin threads) from the center of the pigtail.

When choosing threads for embroidery, possession of certain knowledge and experience is required. Quality threads should be smooth, have a bright, clean color, do not shed, do not fade in the sun. Leading manufacturers (DMC, Gamma, Anchor, Madeira) have floss not only monophonic, but also melange (with a smooth transition from a lighter tone to a darker one and the same color), multi-color (with a smooth transition from one color to another) metallic

The needles are selected depending on the density of the fabric and embroidery thread. The denser the fabric and the thicker the thread, the thicker the needle must be, and vice versa, the thinner the fabric, the thinner the needle and thread. Needles should be with large oval ears to easily pull the embroidery thread. For embroidery, you can use darning needles.

Need to embroider with a thimble. The thimble is needed to push the needle through the fabric when embroidering without a hoop, when piercing several layers of fabric, when stitching the edges of the product.A thimble is worn on the middle finger of the right hand, picking exactly the size of the finger. It should fit snugly to the finger, not squeeze or fall off the finger. It protects the finger from needle pricks.

Scissors for work need to have three types: small with sharp ends for cutting and pulling out threads from fabric, medium sizes with curved ends for cutting threads when embroidering and large for cutting fabrics and skeins. Scissors should be well sharpened, the ends of the blades should be fully closed.

Measuring tape is needed to determine the size of the product, marking patterns on the fabric during sewing work.

The hoop is necessary to keep the fabric in the tensioned state and protect it from deformation, and the embroidered pattern from tightening. It is necessary to fill the fabric in the hoop so that it does not work out of distortion, otherwise the embroidered pattern is deformed after removing the fabric from the hoop. The hoop can be rectangular and round. They consist of two hoops with a diameter of 20-40 cm, entering one another.

The size of the hoops can vary in a large range: from small round ones that are held in one hand to large rectangular frames that are attached to the stand and stand on the floor.Using hoops that are attached to the desktop or standing on the floor is more convenient because both hands are free when working with them, which makes embroidery faster and more accurate. Previously, the hoop was made of wood, bone, including ivory. Modern models are most often made of wood or plastic. .

(see Appendix 3)

Safety regulations.

It is very important to pay attention to the workplace when embroidering. It is best to equip it by the window, because you need good lighting while working, this will allow you to maintain your vision.

At night, be sure to use a desk lamp or a special lamp for embroidery, which has a clothespin in the base and is attached directly to the hoop.

The working chair should be comfortable, with a solid back and be in line with growth, so that work on the product does not tire. It is necessary to sit freely and evenly. Keep the body straight with your head slightly tilted to work. Legs should not hang, you need to put them on something solid.

If your eyesight is not very good or you are working with a shallow canvas, be sure to use the glasses or an embroidery magnifier that fits to your hoop.

It is also necessary to follow the safety rules when working with a needle and scissors:

  • use tools carefully;
  • during the work, do not insert the needle into the clothes or leave it at the workplace;
  • the needle should always be threaded; if it is lost, it must be immediately sought for (it is useful to have a magnet for this, with its help you can easily find a falling needle);
  • do not sew with a rusty needle;
  • needles to store in a needle bed;
  • do not take the needle in the mouth;
  • store scissors in a special set;
  • do not bite off the thread with your teeth, but cut with scissors;
  • transfer the scissors to each other only rings forward.

Calculate the cost of the product.

Let's sum up the spent means. The cost of a tape measure, thimble, scissors are not counted, because they were found in my home. Electricity costs are not taken into account, because work was carried out in the daytime.






















Materials used

Price

(rub)

Consumption

Expenses

(rub.)

Canvas "Aida" №16, color

White, 100% cotton

50 x 55 cm

The hoop wooden, diameter 20 cm

1 PC

Thread floss "Gamma"

25 pieces

Tapestry needles No. 22 (set of 5 pieces)

1 PC

The scheme for embroidery "Tiger"

1 PC

FROM P = M 2 + P op, Where

FROM P - total cost;

M 2 - material costs ;
R op - the cost of the work itself.

FROM n = 732 + 600 = 1332 (rub.)

Environmental assessment.

In the modern industrialized urban world, the influence of any work, hobby, business on the environment, or the environmental friendliness of the process is of enormous importance. It is not the first year that such influential international organizations as the UN, PACE, UNESCO have declared the struggle for ecology a priority task.

Fortunately, my favorite embroidery fully meets all the criteria of environmental friendliness. We list the components necessary for work. These include: thread, canvas, hoops and needles for work. In this work, and mainly in others, I use the threads of the Russian production of the company "Gamma". They are made of cotton, treated with a sustainable natural dye. I basically do not use Chinese threads, because their color is unstable - they quickly fade, fade when washed. This is due to their non-ecological compatibility - the composition of the dye includes rapidly decomposing components based on harmful chemical compounds, including phenol.

The canvas is made of cotton by famous Ivanovo manufacturers. The hoop is made in India from a wonderful beech tree.

Needles - from high-alloy steel - made in Russia, for durable use.

It follows from the above that the main components for embroidery do not harm the nature, neither in the production process nor in the process of exploitation. They do not cause allergies, do not irritate the eyes and ear of a person. With the right approach and recycling of old and unnecessary products will not cause environmental problems. Recycled embroidery quickly and safely decomposed or recycled in modern special enterprises.

Self-esteem.

First of all, it is a joyful feeling of harmony that sweeps as soon as you start your favorite work. It is born in creative thinking, when the images of the picture begin to take on distinct outlines, color saturation and palette as the canvas is filled. Nature gave us color and we must be able to apply its colorful bounties, its properties, learn to recognize shades. Here fantasy presents various variants of the picture, component and color improvisations.

It should be noted psychological and physiological effects. Embroidery drives away stress and dark thoughts. Calms the nervous system, improves mood.Increased, so necessary, attentiveness, composure, perseverance and accuracy are developed. As your skill grows, you notice improvement in hand motility, better coordination of movements.

In addition, embroidery has opened in me design abilities. On jeans, pants, blouses, I can, if desired, apply a nice embroidery that will make clothes more fashionable and original.

Finally, interest in this type of creativity helps me to establish new contacts, to meet other embroiderers and to find like-minded people among them, expanding my horizons.

Conclusion

Finishing this work, I summarize the results of my embroidery activity at this stage.

The main thing is, of course, the great aesthetic spiritual pleasure that I received while going through all the stages of embroidering a picture. I was once again convinced that the combination of hobbies, creativity and work in this activity is optimal, harmoniously combines, develops and mobilizes useful skills and inclinations.

Having spent many hours and days at work, I once again faced the need for discipline, organization, control over myself.At the same time, how fantasy develops, how halftones and shades of a picture are amazingly felt, how pleasant, creative and joyful the process is! In an elevated, enthusiastic state, I tune in to other works. Thank you, embroidery!

(see Appendix 4)

List of used literature.

  1. Jane Catley Mayhew. Animal world. Cross-stitch. - M .: Niola 21st century, 2005
  2. Jen Eaton. Cross-stitch. Masterpieces of world painting. - M .: CONTENT, 2009.
  3. T.V.Mironova, S.O.Ermakova. Cross-stitch. A large collection of patterns. - M .: World of the book, 2009.
  4. I.N. Naniashvili. Cross-stitch. Family Leisure Club. Belgorod, 2010
  5. E.S.Rozanov. New encyclopedia of embroidery. - M .: AST, 2011.

The second most popular type of bead needlework after weaving. In this technique, you can make a picture, purse, decoration or icon.

Before embarking on embroidery, it is necessary to decide what result is necessary as a result - the choice of embroidery technique will depend on it.

The most popular technique is partial beadwork on print. A print is a fabric with a pattern printed on it. Part of the picture is specially marked in the form of squares of different colors, it is here that it is sewn. This technique is very similar to the counting embroidery cross, only instead of crosses sewn bead.The convenience of this technique is that you do not need to follow the pattern according to the scheme (as with cross-stitch embroidery), since the pattern is applied directly to the fabric.

This technique is one of the most simple. It is based on the monastic seam: all stitches on the obverse side of the embroidery go diagonally, and on the wrong side - straight. In order to perform embroidery, you need to bring a needle and thread to the front side in the lower left corner (or upper right) of a small square, put a bead of the required color on the needle and bring the needle from the front side to the wrong side through the upper right (or lower left) corner . This operation is repeated as many times as necessary.


Begin to embroider a picture in this way from any edge, moving along the rows: first, completely embroiders the first row, then proceed to the next, embroider it completely, etc.



When circular embroidery, basically, use two types of stitches - "stalked" and "lowercase".
Small seam: one bead per stitch, then the needle goes back. To perform it, you need to bring the needle from the wrong side to the face between the first and second icons of the beads, put on the bead and insert the needle in front of the first square.Next, remove the needle from the wrong side between the second and third square, put the bead on again and insert the needle between the first and second square, etc.


When performing stalked seam needle through one bead passes twice. To perform it, it is necessary to withdraw the needle from the seamy side to the front one, put it on the needle and pass the needle from the front side to the seamy side. Again, take the needle to the front side, re-thread through the same bead and put on the next bead, again bring the needle to the wrong side. On the front side, insert the needle in front of the last bead sewn, thread the needle through it and put on a new bead of the corresponding color.

Repeat the required combination the required number of times.


When using stalked seam beads sit more closely, which is better for circular embroidery, as the work is more accurate. It should be remembered that the monastic, lowercase suture requires a large number of threads, and when performing stalked seam consumption of threads doubled. Take this into account when preparing materials.

Fully embroidering a picture in a circle will not work, closer to the corners of the arc will be interrupted.In this case, the embroidery will go from one edge to another. In this case, it is best to use an arched seam for embroidery.
The technique of making an arched seam is similar to a stalked seam, only a needle is gathered by a needle not by one bead, but by several, only one bead is fixed on the fabric.


This method of embroidery gives a not tight fit to the fabric, the embroidery is not so hard as with embroidery in the two previous ways.

The circular method is only suitable for embroidery on the print, it will not matter if the picture is partially sewn or partial.



Arched seam is suitable for embroidery, when it does not fit tightly, in long rows, when it is necessary to designate the contour, etc.



Since part of the beads with an arched seam is not tightly attached to the fabric, it is used for mosaic weaving on the fabric. Free beads will be raised in subsequent rows.



The stalked and arched seam is most often used for embroidery of ornaments. One way or another is chosen depending on whether you need a tight fit to the fabric or not. Uniform size of beads embroidered rows, or used mix of beads and.

In any case, with these methods of embroidery, rows will be clearly visible.



Sometimes it is necessary for the needlewoman to have the background of the product chaotically filled up, and no separate rows could be seen, or it is necessary to simply sew individual beads at a distance from each other. In this case, use the seam "forward needle".



When it is performed on one needle step, there is one bead. At first we take out the needle and thread on the face, put on the bead and stick the needle back - on the wrong side. Again, we draw a needle on the face, put on a bead, etc. The peculiarity of this seam is that it is not necessary to ensure that the beads are looking in one direction.

Sometimes, when embroidering with beads, one more stitch is used - it is “attached”.


This is one of the fastest ways to embroidery. First, the required amount of beads is gathered on the thread, then it is applied to the contour. Then we withdraw the needle from the seamy side to the face, and pass it on the wrong side between the beads, fixing the thread on which the beads are gathered. However, needlewomen are not very fond of this method of embroidery, since the beads are not fixed on the fabric and the pattern can shift, it will turn out to be sloppy.

Embroidery icons

One of the most popular handmade gifts nowadays are embroidered icons.The process of embroidery of the icon with beads is not different from the embroidery of the picture. The scheme for embroidery of the icon is printed on a print, which is intended either for partial embroidery with a monastic stitch or for circular embroidery.

Also there are schemes combining both embroidery techniques.



But the icon is not completely embroidered with beads. Embroidery beads often subject to clothing, halos, the background, the faces of the saints remain unresolved.


However, it is worth remembering that the icon is not a picture, so before starting to embroider it, you should take the blessing from the priest.
In any case, no matter what type of embroidery you choose, the main thing is that the work brings pleasure.

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