Cognition in philosophy - that gnoseology and epistemology are being studied
Curiosity about what surrounds us, attemptsto understand how the universe is arranged, and also the desire to penetrate into the unknown world of the other world, have always been a sign of the human mind. When people feel, experience or observe what is happening to others, they absorb and fix it, wanting not only to understand correctly the state of affairs, but also whether it is possible to comprehend the truth. Cognition in philosophy is one of the most interesting questions, because philosophy tries to rationalize and explain the various processes taking place in the human brain and aimed at obtaining knowledge.
The process of cognition is more complex than just accumulationknowledge - it is creative, cultural and social; It involves not only rational, but intuitive and sensual mechanisms of thinking. That is why cognition in philosophy is a special problem that is addressed by a special theoretical section called epistemology or epistemology. The beginning of epistemology as a special branch of philosophy was laid by the Scotsman Ferrier in the 19th century. This philosophical discipline studies both the methods and principles of obtaining knowledge, and the way knowledge is, what is its relation to the real world, whether it has boundaries, and also what are the relationships between what is known and those who know. There are many different theories of knowledge that criticize each other and offer numerous concepts about what kind of knowledge is true and authentic, what are its types and why we are generally capable of knowing the world and ourselves.
In short, philosophers in the fieldare engaged in comprehending why knowledge exists; how can we determine that this is precisely knowledge possessing authenticity and truth, and not a superficial judgment (or opinion) or even a delusion; how this knowledge is formed, and also what are the methods of cognition. In philosophy, throughout its history, the question was extremely acute about the meaning of the acquisition of knowledge for man and mankind, it brings happiness or sorrow. But anyway, in the life of modern society, the acquisition of new knowledge has acquired such importance that the very current stage of development of this society is often called information, especially since it is the information space that unites humanity.
Cognition in philosophy looks like a process,having a social, value nature. History tells us that people were ready not only to acquire new knowledge, but also to defend them, despite the fact that very often they had to pay their lives, freedom, separation from their relatives for their convictions. Since this is a process, it is similar to other activities explored in philosophy and just like them, conditioned by needs (aspiration to understand, to explain), motives (practical or purely intellectual), goals (obtaining knowledge, comprehending the truth), means (such as observation, analysis, experiment, logic, intuition, and so on) and results.
One of the main problemsphilosophical thought, is how cognition develops. Philosophy initially established that the first kind of knowledge was naive, everyday knowledge, which over time, in the process of development of culture, was perfected, giving rise to the emergence of theoretical principles of scientific knowledge and thought. Moreover, philosophy distinguishes between the principles and methods of philosophical knowledge proper and the study of specific scientific knowledge (the philosophy of science).
Philosophers also thought about what role inthe cognizing subject itself plays the process of cognition. Cognition in philosophy is not only the study of things and processes that surround a person or occur in him independently of him, but also his spiritual life. Knowing, a person not only realizes that he is studying something external, but also that this study influences him himself. In addition, especially in the field of humanitarian cognition, the state of the cognizing subject, his values and beliefs can influence the results of cognition. Assessing this complex problem, philosophers from different directions came to completely opposite conclusions. For example, positivists reproached humanitarian knowledge for lack of objectivity, and representatives of philosophical hermeneutics, on the contrary, considered subjectivity to be a specific feature of humanitarian knowledge, which is thus closer to immediacy, and thus to truth.