220V LED lamps: characteristics, labeling, selection criteria + review of the best brands
Incandescent lamps are a thing of the past. The reason for this was the low efficiency and fragility compared with modern sources of lighting. Now at the peak of popularity - LED lamps 220V, which have many advantages.
There is a large selection of LED luminaires on the market, so when purchasing it is important to understand their technical characteristics in detail.
Features of the device LED lamps
Modern LED-lamps are more complex than their predecessors with a filament. For the operation of LEDs, a number of electronic components are required, which are located on the printed circuit board.
All design elements are compactly hidden inside the case. Light sources themselves occupy a minimal amount of space in the luminaire.
The design of a standard LED-lamp includes such components:
- Light diffuser made of plastic. Promotes uniform distribution of the light flux in all directions around the lamp.
- Printed circuit board with capacitors, voltage converters and other electronic components.
- LEDs. Their number and operating voltage is in strict accordance with the built-in electronic circuit.
- Aluminum radiator designed to remove heat in high-power lamps.
- Ventilation slots, providing passive cooling of the board and LEDs.
- The base with which the lamp is mounted in the lamp.
Thus, the LED lamp is a device with a complex internal device. It is demanding on the external temperature and the parameters of the power grid.
Types of LED light sources
All LEDs can be divided into two broad categories: indicator and lighting. The first type is used in electrical engineering for illuminating dashboards, displays, signal displays, as well as in other devices that do not require large luminous flux. And lighting LEDs are used just in household LED-lamps.Such lamps can be classified by purpose, external structure and type of radiation sources.
By sphere of use
LED lamps are capturing more and more technological niches. They are used in consumer electronics, industry and commercial equipment.
The main areas of application of LED lamps are:
- Street lighting.
- High-performance spotlights.
- Lighting of industrial premises and apartments.
- Agriculture. Lamps with a spectrum of radiation capable of initiating photosynthesis are used.
- Car lights.
- Highlighting products in the shop windows.
- Lighting of space in explosive environments.
A large number of areas of use of LED-lighting due to differences in the characteristics of the LEDs and the spectrum emitted by them. Constantly developing innovative types of lamps that allow you to occupy new market niches.
One of the reasons for the prevalence of LED-lamps - the minimum size of their semiconductor crystals.Due to this, lamps can take on a wide variety of shapes.
The main structures of LED lamps are:
- Classical execution as an incandescent lamp with a base. Such lamps usually contain several multidirectional LEDs.
- "Corn". This lamp has the form of a cylinder, covered with LEDs on all sides.
- Ribbon LED-lamps, in which individual crystals are sequentially located on a narrow thin substrate.
- Searchlights with one large luminous crystal.
- Spot ceiling lights.
- Flat LED panels are round, rectangular or free-form.
The small size and unpretentiousness of the LEDs to the installation site allows them to produce designer lamps of unusual shape based on them. And the low heating of LED lamps does not prevent them from being placed near plasterboard and plastic surfaces.
By type of LEDs
Lighting LEDs are divided in their physical structure into several types, each of which has its own characteristics and the prevailing areas of application. LED lamps of three main types are made:
- SMD (Surface Mount LED).
- COB (device on chip).
- Filament (LED thread).
The surface-mounted LEDs have low luminosity, but they can be soldered to any surface on their own, without fear of overheating. Therefore, they are often used in the manufacture of LED strips and portable lights. The radiation angle of SMD LEDs is 90-130 degrees, therefore, to illuminate the entire room around the lamp, a radial arrangement of crystals on the base is necessary.
COB LEDs are high luminance crystals placed on a metal substrate. It is designed to remove heat generated in the process. The radiation angle of the devices on the chip is close to 180 degrees, so they are poorly suited for spotlighting. COB is used in the production of spotlights and premium lamps.
LED filaments are a series of miniature crystals sequentially placed on glass fiber.Sometimes other transparent materials are used instead of glass. This structure allows you to make circular illumination.
The main problem of powerful small LEDs is overheating, which reduces their lifespan and luminous flux.
Advantages and disadvantages of LEDs
More recently, fluorescent lamps were at the top of their popularity, but over the years they have been supplanted by LED lights. In recent years, LED lighting has won the lion’s market share thanks to a multitude of consumer advantages, among which are the following:
- Efficiency. New LED lamps consume 9-10 times less electricity than similar incandescent lamps in luminous flux.
- Durability. The lifetime of good LEDs is calculated over the years, although their luminosity decreases somewhat with time.
- High efficiency thanks to which lamps practically do not heat up.
- Security. If the LED-lamp is damaged, no sharp fragments form and no harmful substances are released.
- The ability to control color temperature.
- High strength LEDs.
- The absence of the emitted spectrum of ultraviolet radiation.
- Adjusting the brightness of the glow.
- Performance in a wide range of temperatures.
- The possibility of producing lighting fixtures of arbitrary shape.
Numerous advantages of LED lamps contribute to the mass transition of consumers to these light sources.
However, LED-lamps have their drawbacks, which should be remembered when buying:
- High cost. The cost of cheap LED-lamps is 4-5 times higher than incandescent lamps.
- The use of frosted flasks degrades the visual effects of crystal chandeliers.
- The rapid decline in luminosity with regular overheating.
- Light flicker in cheap models, which adversely affects vision and general well-being.
- One-direction light, which makes use of the radial arrangement of the LEDs.
- Electronic components of cheap LED lamps break down faster than a crystal burns out, which shortens the actual service life.
- Incorrect operation when connected to a switch with an indicator.
Despite the shortcomings of LED lamps, the population continues to buy them. Real savings are achieved only in 3-4 years and only under the condition that all purchased fixtures work. Therefore, the expediency of their purchase is still worth assessing.
Selection of LED lamps on the characteristics
The operation of 220V LED lamps is characterized by more than ten technical parameters. Awareness of them will help to buy lamps that will best meet the needs for lighting and ensure long-term operation of LEDs.
Nominal luminous flux
You can analyze the luminous flux of lamps both in nominal units (lumens) and in relative (lumen / watt). The greater the power of the LED, the brighter the emitted beam of light.
However, the most important is the ratio of the luminous flux to 1 W of energy consumed. It differs from manufacturer to manufacturer:
- in European, Japanese and branded Chinese - 110-125 Lm / W;
- cheap Chinese - 60-80 Lm / W;
- the largest international suppliers using COB technology - 180-190 Lm / W.
It is recommended to buy LED lamps with the highest luminous flux per 1 W of power. They are more economical, more durable, and are not much more expensive.
Maximum power consumption
The luminous flux emitted by them directly depends on the power consumption of LED lamps. Within one model range, this dependence is almost linear.
Due to the fact that the LEDs themselves occupy a minimum of space in the lamp, its power can be easily increased without changing the shape of the body only due to an increase in the number of crystals.
But since the ultimate goal of buying lamps is still a sufficient level of illumination in the room, it is sometimes better to buy one reliable expensive LED device than two cheaper ones. Their luminous flux will be equal, and the power consumption will differ by half.
Color temperature level
The shade of the light they emit depends on the level of the color temperature of the LED lamps. It can vary from yellow to white. Each color affects a person differently. Lamps with warm yellow light have a temperature of 2600-3200K and promote relaxation.They are recommended to buy for home.
Luminaires with a temperature of 6000K have a cool white color with a blue tint and increase efficiency. They are installed in offices, industrial premises, as well as at the desk.
There are also lamps emitting a neutral white light. Their temperature is 3700-4200K, and they provide a radiation spectrum as close as possible to daylight.
Type of lamp base
When changing bulbs to LED, it is important to pay attention to the base. The most common screwing variants are E27 and E14, as well as with 2 pins - GU5.3, GU10 and GU13. When buying, it is recommended to take your old lamps to the store, show them to the seller, so that he suggests suitable LED models.
Manufacturers of LED-lamps have taken care of the owners of old fluorescent tubes. For them are available LED counterparts, which have the same dimensions and connectors. They can be embedded in the enclosures of existing fixtures.
Operating temperature range
LED lamps are sensitive to overheating, so it is important to consider their working temperature written on the package. The following factors affect the heating of luminaires:
- The presence of the lamp cap.
- The temperature in the room.
- The distance from the ceiling to a spotlight, mounted on a drywall.
- The presence of an aluminum radiator in the lamp itself.
- Short-term temperature rises in the room, for example, in the kitchen when cooking.
For work in conditions of high temperature LED lamps are sold in a special design. It is recommended to buy them if you want to avoid the negative effects of overheating on the LED.
The light of good LED lamps should not pulsate at all, because flashing with a frequency below 300Hz has a negative effect on human health. To determine the instability of the luminous flux in several ways.
The first method is visual: it is necessary to look at the lamp directly or with side vision.In the second method, the smartphone camera is pointed at the lamp and its blinking on the screen is determined.
Pulsation is mainly determined by cheap models equipped with the simplest control unit. Expensive lamps do not have this drawback.
The degree of protection of the case
LED lamps that work around the clock serve as long as possible. Therefore, the greatest efficiency can be achieved from the lamps placed on the street. However, they must be protected from moisture and dust so that their internal electronic components do not fail.
Filling LED-lamps, intended for outdoor use, should be well isolated from the external environment. For courtyard lighting, IP54 and higher protection will suffice. Such lamps can withstand heavy rain and dusty wind.
The scattering angle of the light beam
LEDs are always attached to the substrate, which prevents light from falling on its opposite side. Therefore, without special devices, one radiating crystal can effectively illuminate only the space in front of it.
To increase the angle of illumination use special diffusing caps. But there are also light-emitting diodes on glass fibers or transparent substrates, which make it possible to uniformly illuminate the entire surrounding space.
In flashlights, on the contrary, the LED beam must be narrowed, which is achieved mainly due to a special reflector. Therefore, the choice of the shape of the LED-lamp should be carried out only after determining the required angle of the light flux.
Tips for choosing LED lamps
When buying LED-devices, it is important to pay attention to their technical characteristics, as well as to a number of other nuances.
Presented tips will help to buy a high-quality lamp that will last a long time and will be comfortable for the eyes.
- On the packaging of LED-lamps should be an inscription about the absence of pulsation.
- The luminous flux must be greater than that of the replaceable incandescent lamp.
- It is recommended to compare the glow of lamps of the same power still in the store.
- If there is a switch with an indicator, it is advisable to pre-verify that the LED-lamps work correctly with it.
- Ceiling lamps with a small angle of light scattering can blind eyes.
- It is recommended to buy lamps in large stores that provide a minimum of 2 years warranty.
It is advisable to buy fixtures only from well-known manufacturers, because products of cheap little-known brands often do not correspond to the characteristics stated on the packaging.
There is no generally accepted labeling of LED lamps. Each manufacturer inserts its legend in the model name.
But there are a number of common abbreviations that are applied to lamps, regardless of their type:
- E27, E14, E40 - screw-in base and its diameter in mm.
- GU5.3, GU10 and GU13 male socket and size in mm between the contacts.
- A, C, R, CA, CF, G, P, S, T - cap shape.
- A, A +, A ++ - the degree of efficiency.
- 2700K-6000K - color temperature.
Also on the lamp body can be displayed general specificationscharacteristic of an electrical appliance: voltage and frequency of current, operating temperature, power, life in hours, luminous flux and other parameters.
Leading manufacturers of LED lamps
Manufacturers of world-famous LED products value their image, therefore, they strive to produce lamps with parameters that fully comply with the declared ones. The best manufacturers of premium LED lamps are:
Prices for the products of listed companies are the highest, but the quality of the lamps is superb.
The average price segment in the production of LED-lamps is occupied by the following companies:
These companies seek to use low-cost components in production without severe damage to quality. Often their lamps break in the first days of operation, but are replaced without any problems under warranty.
It is not recommended to buy LED products of little-known Chinese and domestic brands, because their warranty period rarely exceeds 4-6 months.In addition, they are not important brand image, which means that there is an opportunity to freely use in the production of second-grade components.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Comparative reviews - a great opportunity to compare the characteristics of different types of lamps, choose the best solutions.
Device and principle of operation of LED-lamps:
Selecting a manufacturer of LED lamps:
Choosing a reliable LED-lamp is not easy. Poorly understanding their specifications, it is easy to buy a low-quality or simply inappropriate model. Therefore, the purchase of LED lamps should be started only after a thorough study of their features and familiarization with the parameters indicated on the package.